Orders

There are three orders in East Cree, like in other Algonquian languages: Independent, Conjunct and Imperative. Within each order, there are several conjugations (also known as verb paradigms). For convenience, conjugations used across the Cree-Innu language family have each been given a number.

Conjugation numbering for Cree-Innu-Naskapi
Independent Order
# Abbreviation Conjugation Name
01 IIN Independent Indicative Neutral
02 IIN-S Independent Indicative Neutral – Subjective
03 IIP Independent Indicative Preterit
04 IIP-S Independent Indicative Preterit – Subjective
05 IDR-PR Independent Indirect Present
06 IDR-PR-S Independent Indirect Present – Subjective
07 IDR-PS Independent Indirect Past
08 IDR-PS-S Independent Indirect Past – Subjective
09 IDN Independent Dubitative Neutral
10 IDP Independent Dubitative Preterit
Conjunct Order
# Abbreviation Conjugation Name
11 CIN Conjunct Indicative Neutral
12a CS Conjunct Indicative Neutral – Subjunctive
12b CH Conjunct Indicative Neutral – Habitual/Iterative
13 CIP Conjunct Indicative Preterit
14 CDN Conjunct Dubitative Neutral
15 CDP Conjunct Dubitative Preterit
16 CDP2 Conjunct Dubitative Preterit 2
Imperative Order
# Abbreviation Conjugation Name
17a IMP Imperative – Immediate
17b IMP-D Imperative – Delayed

The conjugations striked through do not exist for the Southern dialect of East Cree. See the Conjugation Tables. #03 and #13 are now very rarely found.

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