Junker, M.-O., Salt, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]
Marie-Odile Junker, Luci Salt and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://” [Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015
VAI with explicit goals
Some verbs that look like VAI verbs in their word structure can nevertheless take a second role (an object or a goal). They can be used as intransitive verbs, or as transitive verbs.
VAI with explicit goals that can be animate or inanimate
S/he is drinking
S/he is drinking tea
S/he is drinking milk
There are some VAI with explicit goals whose goals can be either inanimate or animate third persons.
She runs carrying it
She runs carrying the stick
She runs carrying her baby
VAI with explicit goals that can be only inanimate
S/he wets it
She wets her (own) sweater
Some VAI like ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤnipiiuhtaau in the example above, can take an inanimate noun as goal (the inanimate noun ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻukaanichiim). Such VAI verbs with explicit inanimate goals are sometimes called by linguists “pseudo-transitive verbs” or VTI 2. If they make their passive or unspecified actor forms like VTI verbs, in -kiniuu, we call them VAI+O. Other verbs, still make their unspecified actor form in -niuu, like regular VAI but nevertheless can take an inanimate goal, like ᒦᒋᐤmiichiu below.
She eats it
She eats meat
They have corresponding VTA forms if an animate goal is used. For example: