VAI + Object
|ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ||nipiiuhtaau||S/he wets it|
|ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻ||nipiiuhtaau ukaanichiim||She wets her (own) sweater|
Some VAI like ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ nipiiuhtaau in the example above, can take an inanimate noun as goal or object (the inanimate noun ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻ ukaanichiim). Even when used alone, they have an implicit goal or object (‘it’). Many of these verbs, like ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ nipiiuhtaau ‘S/he wets it’, end in the causative suffix -ᐦᑖᐤ -htaau.
Such verbs are not really Intransitive, they behave like Transitive Inanimate verbs. However, Regular VTI verbs end in –im, like ᐧᐋᐱᐦᑎᒻ waapihtim.
They have corresponding VTA forms if an animate goal is used. For example:
|ᓂᐲᐅᐦᐋᐤ ᐅᐸᔨᒌᓯᒻᐦ᙮||nipiiuhaau upayichiisimh.||‘She gets her (own) pants wet.’ (by walking through puddles for example)|
In the Cree dictionary, and in the Conjugation Guide, we call such verbs VAI+O, for Verb Animate Intransitive + Object. Such verbs have their unspecified actor form (or passive) in -kiniuu, like VTI verbs. Regular VAI verbs have an unspecified actor form in -niuu.
|VAI+O||ᐅᔑᐦᑖᐤ᙮||ushihtaa-u.||‘S/he makes it.’|
|-kiniuu||ᐅᔑᐦᑖᑭᓂᐆ᙮||ushihtaa-kiniuu.||‘It is being made (by somebody).’|
|-niuu – not possible||–||*ushihtaa-niuu.||*’There is making going on.’|
|VAI||ᓂᐹᐤ᙮||nipaa-u.||‘S/he is sleeping.’|
|-kiniuu – not possible||–||*nipaa-kiniuu.||‘It is being slept (by somebody).’|
|-niuu||ᓂᐹᓂᐆ᙮||nipaa-niuu.||‘There is sleeping (going on).’|
This is a good way to tell them apart.
|APA:||Junker, M.-O., Salt, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]|
|MLA:||Marie-Odile Junker, Luci Salt and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]|
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://”
[Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015