VAI (Verb Animate Intransitive) stems
Stems ending with a vowel
Most VAI verbs have stems ending with a vowel. For example a verb like ᔒᐦᑭᒋᐤ shiihkichiu ‘s/he is cold’ is made of the stem ᔒᐦᑭᒋ shiihkichi- ‘be cold’ and the suffix ᐤ -u. When we conjugate ᔒᐦᑭᒋᐤ shiihkichiu, we recognize the common stem ᔒᐦᑭᒋ shiihkichi- in all the forms.
|1||ᓂᔒᐦᑭᒋᓐ||nishiihkichin||I am cold|
|2||ᒋᔒᐦᑭᒋᓐ||chishiihkichin||you are cold|
|1p||ᓂᔒᐦᑭᒋᓈᓐ||nishiihkichinaan||we (but not you) are cold|
|21p||ᒋᔒᐦᑭᒋᓈᓂᐤ||chishiihkichinaaniu||we (including you) are cold|
|2p||ᒋᔒᐦᑭᒋᓈᐧᐋᐤ||chishiihkichinaawaau||you are cold|
|3||ᔒᐦᑭᒋᐤ||shiihkichiu||s/he is cold|
|3p||ᔒᐦᑭᒋᐧᐃᒡ||shiihkichiwich||they are cold|
|3′||ᔒᐦᑭᒋᔨᐅᐦ||shiihkichiyiuh||the other(s) is(are) cold|
ᔒᐦᑭᒋ shiihkichi- is a stem ending in a short -i. The different vowel endings are:
|short i||ᔒᐦᑭᒋᐤ||shiihkichi-u||s/he is cold|
|short u||ᓂᑭᒨ||nikimu-u||s/he is singing|
|long aa||ᓂᐹᐤ||nipaa-u||s/he is sleeping|
|long ii||ᐅᐦᒌᐤ||uhchii-u||s/he comes from…|
Links to Conjugation Tables:
In the verb conjugations, the model verbs are indicated as -i, -ii, -u. -aa.
VAI aa stems use a shorter passive suffix (unspecified actor form): they shorten the -naaniu suffix. Compare:
|aa||X||ᓂᐹᓅᓂᐆ||nipaa+naaniu=nipaaniuu||people sleep, there is a sleepover||(short suffix: -niu)|
|u||X||ᓂᒧᓈᓅ||nikimu+naaniu=nikimunaaniu||people sing, there is a singing event||(regular suffix: -naaniu)|
The same happens for the X’ forms (unspecified actor Obviative): the long suffix -naaniuyuu becomes -niwiyuu after an aa stem, or -aaniwiyuu with an e or n stem.
Stems ending with -wi
Other VAI verbs have stems ending in vowels that contain wi for some forms. For example, when we conjugate a verb like ᓃᐴ niipuu ‘s/he is standing’, we see the stem is ᓃᐴ niipu– in niipu-u, but niipuwi– in ᓃᐳᐧᐃᐧᐃᒡ niipuwi-wich.
Here are some examples:
|uwi||ᓃᐴ||niipu-u||s/he is standing|
|ᑳ ᓃᐳᐧᐃᑦ||kaa niipuwi-t||the one who is standing|
|iwi||ᒥᓂᑑᔑᐆ||minituushiu-u||it (anim) has worms|
|ᑳ ᒥᓂᑑᔑᐧᐃᑦ||kaa minituushiwi-t||the one who has worms|
|iiwi||ᓯᔅᒌᐆ||sischiiu-u||it is muddy|
|ᑳ ᓯᔅᒌᐧᐃᑦ||kaa sischiiwi-t||the one who is muddy|
|aawi||ᓈᐹᐆ||naapaau-u||he is a man|
|ᑳ ᓈᐹᐧᐃᑦ||naapaawi-t||the one who is a man|
These verbs are indicated as -uwi, -iwi, -iiwi and -aawi in the dictionary. In the verb conjugations, the model verb is indicated as -wi.
Stems ending with -n
Other VAI verbs have stems ending in -n. For example, when we conjugate a verb like ᑎᑯᔑᓐ tikushin ‘s/he arrives’, we recognize the common stem ᑎᑯᔑᓐ tikushin in all the forms:
|1p||ᓂᑎᑯᔑᓂᓈᓐ||nitikushininaan||We (but not you) arrive|
|21p||ᒋᑎᑯᔑᓂᓈᓂᐤ||chitikushininaaniu||We (including you) arrive|
|4||ᑎᑯᔑᓂᔨᐤᐦ||tikushiniyiuh||The other arrives|
VAI verbs with stems ending in -n, have a special behaviour. The nasal vowel n becomes h in the 3rd person proximate inflection in the conjunct indicative conjugations (#11 and #12).
|ᑎᑯᔑᓐ||tikushin||#01||ᐋᐦ ᑎᑯᔑᐦᒃ||aah tikushih-k||#11|
Note also that we find here a -k rather than a -t, for the third person proximate conjunct suffix.
Link to Conjugation Tables
|APA:||Junker, M.-O., Salt, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]|
|MLA:||Marie-Odile Junker, Luci Salt and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]|
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://”
[Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015