The Selection of Theme Suffix in VTA verbs
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᓐ᙮||chiwaapamin.||you see me.|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᑎᓐ᙮||chiwaapamitin.||I see you.|
The it in the second example above is called a theme suffix. The difference between these two examples is that the theme suffix –it appears in ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᑎᓐ chiwaapamitin I see you and not in ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᓐ chiwaapamin you see me.
There are three transitive animate theme suffixes, which follow the TA verb stem: -it, -aa, -e, and -ikw/-iku. it is used only when first persons ( ᓃ nii I, ᓃᔮᓐ niiyaan we) are actors and the second persons ( ᒌ chii you, ᒌᔮᓅ chiiyaanuu we including you, ᒌᐧᐋᐤ chiiwaau you all) are goals. -aa and -ikw/-iku are used in all combinations with third persons.
|Southern Dialect||English||Actor||Rank||Goal||Prefix||Theme Suffix|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᓐ||chiwaapamin||you see me.||2||>||1||ᒋ||chi||–|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᑎᓐ||chiwaapamitin||I see you.||1||<||2||ᒋ||chi||it|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᓈᐧᐋᐤ||chiwaapaminaawaau||you all see me.||2||>||1||ᒋ||chi||–|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᑎᓈᐧᐋᐤ||chiwaapamitinaawaau||I see you all.||1||<||2||ᒋ||chi||it|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᓈᓐ||chiwaapaminaan||you see us.||2||>||1||ᒋ||chi||–|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᑎᓈᓐ||chiwaapamitinaan||we see you.||1||<||2||ᒋ||chi||it|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒫᐤ||chiwaapamaau||you see her.||2||>||3||ᒋ||chi||aa|
|ᒋᐧᐋᐸᒥᒄ||chiwaapamikw||she sees you.||3||<||2||ᒋ||chi||ikw|
|ᓂᐧᐋᐸᒫᐤ||niwaapamaau||I see her.||1||>||3||ᓂ||ni||aa|
|ᓂᐧᐋᐸᒥᒄ||niwaapamikw||she sees me.||3||<||1||ᓂ||ni||ikw|
|ᐧᐋᐸᒣᐤ||waapameu||she sees him (the other).||3||>||3′||–||aa|
|ᐧᐋᐸᒥᑰ||waapamikuu||he (the other) sees her.||3′||<||3||–||iku|
[for the plural third persons combinations see the Conjugation Tables]
The theme suffix it appears in independent and conjunct verb forms for 1>2 person combinations. The direct theme suffix aa/e and the inverse theme suffix iku/ikw appear in the independent, and some conjunct verb forms for third persons combinations.
Direct and Inverse in TA verbs
When the actor of a TA verb outranks the goal on the person hierarchy, we can speak of a “direct” relationship. When the goal outranks the actor on the person hierarchy, then we speak of an “inverse” relationship. The theme suffix aa is thus also called the Direct suffix , while the theme suffixes it and iku/ikw are called the Inverse suffixes.
|APA:||Junker, M.-O., Blacksmith, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Southern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original and 2013 revised edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]|
|MLA:||Marie-Odile Junker, Louise Blacksmith and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Southern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original and 2013 revised edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]|
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://”
[Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015