Some transitive verbs that involve giving to another or doing something for another actually have three roles: an actor and two goals. Such verbs are called double goals. In the verb ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ᙮waapahtiyeu. there is the canoe, John, and Louise. The focus is on John the animate recipient or beneficiary of the action.
ᐧᒑᓐᐦ ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ ᓘᐄᔅ ᐅᑑᑦ᙮
John waapahtiyeu Louise utuut.
Louise shows her canoe to John.
The other goal of the verb can be animate or inanimate.
I show you my canoe.
I show you my child.
s/he gives him/her a book.
ᐁᓪᓰ ᒌᐧᐁᒦᔦᐤ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐄᓂᔫ ᓗᓰᐦ᙮
Elsie chiiwe miiyeu masinihiikaniyuu Lucih.
Elsie is returning the book to Luci.
Verbs like ᒫᑎᔑᒧᐧᐁᐤmaatishimuweu are TA verbs derived by insertion of a -uw suffix after a TI verb ( ᒫᑎᔑᒻmaatishim ‘she cuts it’). They focus on the person who benefits from what happens (the beneficiary), and they can take animate or inanimate goals, in addition to this beneficiary goal. Such verbs are sometimes called benefactive or applicative verbs.
S/he is looking after his children for him.
Look after my canoe for me!
ᒋᑲ ᑲᓇᐧᐁᔨᐦᑕᒧᐧᐁᐤ ᑫᓃᐦ ᐅᑖᐹᓈᔅᒄᐦ᙮
chika kanaweyihtamuweu Kennyh utaapaanaaskuyuuh.
You will look after Kenny’s sled for him.
ᒋᑲ ᑲᓇᐧᐁᔨᐦᑕᒧᐧᐁᐤ ᐧᒑᓐ ᐅᑑᑕᔫ᙮
chika kanaweyihtamuweu John utuutiyuu.
You will look after John’s canoe for him.
These verbs have a different form in the inverse:
I sent it to him.
You sent it to me.
He sent it to me.
I sent it to you.
The applicative verbs should not be confused with the relational forms of VTI and VAI verbs.
S/he causes him to dance.
Many verbs ending in ᐦᐁᐤ-heu have a causative meaning. They indicate that someone is making someone else do something. Causative verbs are TA verbs. They can be derived from TI or AI verbs.
Some VTA verbs almost always appear in the inverse with an inanimate subject. Some, like ᑲᔥᑲᒥᑰkashkamikuu above or ᐋᓯᐦᒉᔨᐦᑕᒥᐦᐄᑰaasihcheyihtamihiikuu below are never found in the direct.
It flies into her mouth.
It is tight on him.
It (illness) impedes him, her.
It interests or motivates her.
The porcupine quill goes deep into her skin.
Junker, M.-O., Blacksmith, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Southern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original and 2013 revised edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]
Marie-Odile Junker, Louise Blacksmith and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Southern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original and 2013 revised edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://” [Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015