Particle Structure

Simple and complex particles

Observation
ᔒᐹ ᔒᐹᔮᐦᑎᒄ
shiipaa Click here to hear this word shiipaayaahtikw
under under a tree
ᐋᐱᐦᑑ ᐋᐱᐦᑖᔅᑲᓅ
aapihtuu Click here to hear this word aapihtaaskanuu
half way half way down the road

The words above are called particles. ᔒᐹ shiipaa under and ᐋᐱᐦᑑ aapihtuu half way are simple particles. ᔒᐹᔮᐦᑎᒄ shiipaayaahtikw under a tree is made of two elements: the initial shiipaa- under and the noun final -aahtikw tree, attached together by the connector y. ᐋᐱᐦᑖᔅᑲᓅ aapihtaaskanuu half way along the road is also a particle made of two elements: the initial aapihtaa- half and the final -skinuu (the short form of the noun ᒣᔅᑭᓅ meskinuu road).

Examples:

Element Element Particle
ᔒᐹ ᐋᐦᑎᒄ ᔒᐹᔮᐦᑎᒄ
shiipaa + (y) + aahtikw Click here to hear this word shiipaayaahtikw
under tree under a tree
ᐋᐱᐦᑑ ᔅᑲᓅ ᐋᐱᐦᑖᔅᑲᓅ
aapihtaa skanuu Click here to hear this word aapihtaaskanuu
half way road half way along the road

Some particles are made by reduplication or can bear a diminutive suffix:

naache later
 
REDUP + naache
naa + naache = naanaache later on, in a moment
 
naanaache + DIM
naanaache + shiish = naanaacheshiish a little later