VTA (Verb Transitive Animate) Stem
VTA stems end with a consonant. There are no vowel stems.
- Stems ending with -m, -n, -y
- Stems with alternate endings: -t or -sh
- Stems with alternate endings: -sw or -su, -shw or -shu, -hw or -hu
- Stems ending with -uw , -aw
- Stems ending with -h
- Irregular Stem: peshuweu
The VTA consonant stems ending in m, n and y are the most regular.
|ᐧᐋᐸᒣᐤ||waapam-eu||s/he sees him/her/it|
|ᐅᑎᓀᐤ||utin-eu||s/he takes him/her/it|
|ᐙᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ||waapahtiy-eu||s/he shows it to him/her/it|
VTA stems ending in -t, become -sh in certain verb forms, mostly in 2>1 forms, singular and plural:
|-t ending||-sh ending|
|ᓈᑌᐤ||naat-eu||s/he goes to him/her||ᓈᔥ||naash||go to him/her!|
|ᒋᓈᑎᑎᓐ||chinaat-itin||I go to you||ᒋᓈᔑᓐ||chinaash-in||you come to me!|
VTA stems ending in -sw, -shw or -hw stems become -su, -shu, -hu, in the mixed inverse (3>1 and 3>2) and in all local forms (2>1 and 1>2).
|ᒫᑎᐧᔐᐤ||maatishw-eu||s/he cuts him/her/it||ᓂᒫᑎᔓᒄ||nimaatishu-kw||s/he cuts me|
|ᐃᔅᐧᑳᐧᓭᐤ||iskwaasw-eu||s/he burns him/her/it||ᓂᑎᔅᐧᑳᓱᒄ||nitiskwaasu-kw||s/he burns me|
|ᐅᑖᒥᐦᐧᐁᐤ||utaamihw-eu||s/he hits him/her/it||ᓅᑖᒥᐦᐅᒄ||nuutaamihu-kw||s/he hits me|
VTA stems ending in -aw or -uw become -aa in the inverse forms of the independent, and in the local inverse of the conjunct (1>2 forms).
|Direct: -uw ending||Inverse: -aa ending|
|ᒥᔅᑯᐧᐁᐤ||miskuw-eu||s/he finds him/her/it||ᒥᔅᑳᑰ||miskaa-kuu||s/he (the other) finds him/her|
|ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐁᐤ||itishahamuw-eu||s/he sends it to someone||ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᑰ||itishahamaa-kuu||someone sends it to her/him|
|ᓂᒥᔅᑯᐧᐋᐤ||nimiskuw-aau||I find him/her/it||ᓂᒥᔅᑳᒄ||nimiskaa-kw||s/he finds me|
|ᓂᑎᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐋᐤ||nititishahamuwaau||I send it to him/her||ᓂᑎᑎᔑᐦᐊᒫᒄ||nititishihamaa-kw||s/he sends it to me|
|ᐁ ᒥᔅᑰᔨᓐ||e miskuuyin||when you find me||ᐁ ᒥᔅᑳᑖᓐ||e miskaataan||when I find you|
Historical note: all these stems were ending in -aw long ago, but under the influence of the /w/, the /a/ became a /u/. This did not happen everywhere, depending on the suffixes that were added, and depending on how fast the language has changed in some communities.
VTA stems ending in -h cause a short vowel i in the inflection to lengthen.
|ᓵᒋᐦᐁᐤ||saachiheu||s/he loves him/her|
|ᒋᓵᒋᐦᐄᑎᓐ||chisaachih-iitin||I love you|
There is one VTA verb, ᐯᔓᐧᐁᐤ peshuweu, which is irregular and has two stems: peshi- or peshu-.