VTA (Verb Transitive Animate) Stem

VTA stems end with a consonant. There are no vowel stems.

Stems ending with -m, -n, -y

The VTA consonant stems ending in m, n and y are the most regular.

ᐧᐋᐸᒣᐤ Click here to hear this word waapam-eu s/he sees him/her/it
ᐅᑎᓀᐤ Click here to hear this word utin-eu s/he takes him/her/it
ᐙᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ waapahtiy-eu s/he shows it to him/her/it

Conjugation Table

Stems ending with alternate endings:  -t or -sh

VTA stems ending in -t, become -sh in certain verb forms, mostly in 2>1 forms, singular and plural:

-t ending -sh ending
ᓈᑌᐤ Click here to hear this word naat-eu s/he goes to him/her ᓈᔥ Click here to hear this word naash go to him/her!
ᒋᓈᑎᑎᓐ Click here to hear this word chinaat-itin I go to you ᒋᓈᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word chinaash-in you come to me!

Conjugation Table

Stems with ending with alternate endings: –sw or -sw, -shw or shu, -hw or hu

VTA stems ending in -sw, -shw or -hw stems become -su, -shu, -hu, in the mixed inverse (3>1 and 3>2) and in all local forms (2>1 and 1>2).

ᒫᑎᐧᔐᐤ Click here to hear this word maatishw-eu s/he cuts him/her/it ᓂᒫᑎᔓᒄ Click here to hear this word nimaatishu-kw s/he cuts me
ᐃᔅᐧᑳᐧᓭᐤ Click here to hear this word iskwaasw-eu s/he burns him/her/it ᓂᑎᔅᐧᑳᓱᒄ Click here to hear this word nitiskwaasu-kw s/he burns me
ᐅᑖᒥᐦᐧᐁᐤ Click here to hear this word utaamihw-eu s/he hits him/her/it ᓅᑖᒥᐦᐅᒄ Click here to hear this word nuutaamihu-kw s/he hits me

Conjugation Table

Stems ending with -aw, -uw

VTA stems ending in -aw or -uw become -aa in the inverse forms of the independent, and in the local inverse of the conjunct (1>2 forms).

Direct: -uw ending Inverse: -aa ending
ᒥᔅᑯᐧᐁᐤ Click here to hear this word miskuw-eu s/he finds him/her/it ᒥᔅᑳᑰ Click here to hear this word miskaa-kuu s/he (the other) finds him/her
ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐁᐤ Click here to hear this word itishahamuw-eu s/he sends it to someone ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᑰ Click here to hear this word itishahamaa-kuu someone sends it to her/him
ᓂᒥᔅᑯᐧᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word nimiskuw-aau I find him/her/it ᓂᒥᔅᑳᒄ Click here to hear this word nimiskaa-kw s/he finds me
ᓂᑎᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word nititishahamuwaau I send it to him/her ᓂᑎᑎᔑᐦᐊᒫᒄ Click here to hear this word nititishihamaa-kw s/he sends it to me
ᐁ ᒥᔅᑰᔨᓐ Click here to hear this word e miskuuyin when you find me ᐁ ᒥᔅᑳᑖᓐ Click here to hear this word e miskaataan when I find you

Historical note: all these stems were ending in -aw long ago, but under the influence of the /w/, the /a/ became a /u/. This did not happen everywhere, depending on the suffixes that were added, and depending on how fast the language has changed in some communities.

Conjugation Table

Stems ending with h

VTA stems ending in -h cause a short vowel i in the inflection to lengthen.

ᓵᒋᐦᐁᐤ Click here to hear this word saachiheu s/he loves him/her
ᒋᓵᒋᐦᐄᑎᓐ Click here to hear this word chisaachih-iitin I love you

Conjugation Table

Irregular Stem

There is one VTA verb, ᐯᔓᐧᐁᐤ peshuweu, which is irregular and has two stems: peshi- or peshu-.

Conjugation Table