Initial Change

Observation
Click here to hear this word niipuu S/he is standing
ᐊᐌᓐ ᐴᑦ Click here to hear this word awen naapuut Who is standing?

Initial change is a phonological change that affects the first syllable of a verb or a preverb. For example, when the verb ᓃᐴ niipuu above, is put in the Conjunct (#11) and is used for a question, the conjunct form ᓃᐴᑦ niipuut becomes ᓈᐴᑦ naapuut. The vowel of the first syllable of the stem changes from ii to aa. Initial change only happens if there is no preverb before the verb stem. If a conjunct preverb such as  e,  che or  kaa is used, there will be no initial change.

Initial change never happens on verbs in the Imperative or the Independent order, only in the Conjunct order. Conjugations like Conjunct Indicative Neutral (#11) use it for (partial) questions in the present. Initial change is obligatory in two conjugations, the Conjunct Habitual (#12b) and the Conjunct Dubitative Neutral (#14).

Depending on the vowel of the stem, different changes happen. These are summarized in the table below Initial Change Rules for Verbs.

Initial Change Rules for Verbs

short vowels

Rule–>Dictionary formChanged form (#11, question)
i > e ᐃᔅᒀᓴᒻ Click here to hear this word iskwaasam ᐊᐌᓐ ᐋᔅᒀᓯᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen eskwaasahk
  ᑎᐹᐹᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word tipaapaatam ᐊᐌᓐ ᑖᐹᐹᑎᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen tepaapaatahk
  ᒋᐱᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word chipaham ᐊᐌᓐ ᒑᐹᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen chepahak
  ᒥᔅᑲᒻ Click here to hear this word miskam ᐊᐌᓐ ᒫᔅᑭᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen meskahk
  ᒥᒋᓯᒨ Click here to hear this word michisimuu ᐊᐤᓐ ᒣᒋᓯᒧᑦ Click here to hear this word awen mechisimut
  ᓯᒎ Click here to hear this word sichuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓭᒋᑦ Click here to hear this word awen sechit
  ᓂᔅᑰ Click here to hear this word niskuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓀᔅᑰᑦ Click here to hear this word awen neskuut
  ᔑᒥᑕᐴ Click here to hear this word shimitapuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᔐᒥᑕᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awen shemitapit
  ᔑᑯᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word shikuham ᐊᐌᓐ ᔐᑯᐦᐊᐤᒄ Click here to hear this word awen shekuhakw
  ᐎᔮᔅᑯᓂᒉᐤ Click here to hear this word wiyaaskunicheu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐌᔮᔅᑯᓂᒉᑦ Click here to hear this word awen weyaaskunichet
u > we ᐅᑎᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word utinam ᐊᐌᓐ ᐌᑎᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen wetinahk
  ᑯᑐᐌᐤ Click here to hear this word kutuweu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑴᑐᐌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kwetuwet
  ᒧᔥᑌᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word mushtenam ᐊᐌᓐ ᒬᔥᑌᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen mweshtenahk
u > e ᓄᐗᒌᐤ Click here to hear this word nuwachiiu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓀᐙᒌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen newaachiit
a > e ᐊᑯᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word akutaau ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁᑯᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awen ekutaat
  ᑕᐦᑯᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word tahkunam ᐊᐌᓐ ᑌᐦᑯᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen tehkunahk
  ᑲᓇᐙᐴ Click here to hear this word kanawaapuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑫᓇᐙᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kenawaapit
  ᒪᒋᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word machinam ᐊᐌᓐ ᒣᒋᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen mechinahk
  ᓇᑲᑕᒻ Click here to hear this word nakatam ᐊᐌᓐ ᓀᑲᑕᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen nekatahk
  ᓴᔅᑲᑕᐴ Click here to hear this word saskatapuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓭᔅᑲᑕᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awen seskatapit
  ᐗᓂᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word wanishin ᐊᐌᓐ ᐌᓂᔑᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen wenishihk
sha > shaa ᔕᐌᔨᒣᐤ Click here to hear this word shaweyimeu ᐊᐌᓐ ᔖᐌᔨᒫᑦ Click here to hear this word awen shaaweyimaat
ya > ye ᔭᐦᒋᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word yahchinam ᐊᐌᓐ ᔦᒋᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen yehchinahk

 

long vowels

Rule–>Dictionary formChanged form
e > iye ᐃᔦ ᐁᔅᒉᐤ Click here to hear this word escheu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔦᔅᒉᑦ Click here to hear this word awen iyeschet
  ᑎᔦ ᑌᐦᑕᐴ Click here to hear this word tehtapuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑎᔦᐦᑕᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awen tiyehtapit
  ᒋᔦ ᒉᔥᑎᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word cheshtinam ᐊᐌᓐ ᒋᔦᔥᑎᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen chiyeshtinahk
  ᒥᔦ ᒣᑕᐌᐤ Click here to hear this word metaweu ᐊᐌᓐ ᒥᔦᑕᐌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen miyetawet
  ᓂᔦ ᓀᒨ Click here to hear this word nemuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓂᔦᒧᑦ Click here to hear this word awen niyemut
  ᓯᔦ ᓭᒋᓲ Click here to hear this word sechisuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓯᔦᒋᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awen siyechisit
  ᔑᔦ ᔐᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word shenam ᐊᐌᓐ ᔑᔦᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen shiyenahk
  ᐎᔦ ᐌᐱᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word wepinam ᐊᐌᓐ ᐎᔦᐱᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen wiyepinahk
we > uye ᐳᔦ ᐺᒋᔅᑑ Click here to hear this word pwechistuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐳᔦᒋᔅᑐᑦ Click here to hear this word awen puyechistut
  ᑯᔦ ᑴᑎᐲᐤ Click here to hear this word kwetipiiu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑯᔦᑎᐲᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kuyetipiit
  ᒧᔦ ᒬᔥᑖᑕᒻ Click here to hear this word mweshtaatam ᐊᐌᓐ ᒧᔦᔥᑖᑕᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen muyeshtaatahk
  ᒬᔥᒋᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word mweshchishin ᐊᐌᓐ ᒧᔦᔥᒋᔑᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen muyeshchishihk
ii > eyi ᐌᔨ ᐐᐐᐤ Click here to hear this word wiiwiiu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐌᔨᐐᑦ Click here to hear this word awen weyiwiit
  ᐁᔨ ᐄᐹᑌᔨᒣᐤ Click here to hear this word iipaateyimeu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁᔨᐹᑌᔨᒫᑦ Click here to hear this word awen eyipaateyimaat
  ᐄᒀᔅᑯᐌᐤ Click here to hear this word iikwaaskuweu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁᔨᒀᔅᑯᐙᑦ Click here to hear this word awen eyikwaaskuwaat
  ᐄᑑᐦᑯᑌᐤ Click here to hear this word iituuhkuteu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁᔨᑑᐦᑯᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awen eyituuhkutaat
ii > ii ᑏᔻᐴᐦᒉᐤ Click here to hear this word tiiywaapuuhcheu (irregular) ᐊᐌᓐ ᑏᔻᐴᐦᒉᑦ Click here to hear this word awen tiiywaapuuchet
ii > aa ᓰᑑᓀᐤ Click here to hear this word siituuneu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓵᑑᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awen saatuunaat
  ᔒᑲᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word shiikaham ᐊᐌᓐ ᔖᑲᐦᐊᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen shaakahahk
  ᒌᔥᐴ Click here to hear this word chiishpuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᒑᔥᐳᑦ Click here to hear this word awen chaashput
  ᐊᐌᓐ ᑳᔥᐴᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kaashpuut
  ᒦᒋᓲ Click here to hear this word miichisuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᒫᒋᓱᑦ Click here to hear this word awen maachisut
  ᓃᐴ Click here to hear this word niipuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓈᐴᑦ Click here to hear this word awen naapuut
  ᐐᐅᔔ Click here to hear this word wiiushuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐙᐅᔑᑦ Click here to hear this word awen waaushit
  ᐐᓂᑌᐤ Click here to hear this word wiiniteu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐙᓂᑌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen waanitet
  ᐐᓂᐦᐄᓲ Click here to hear this word wiinihiisuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐙᓂᐦᐄᓱᑦ Click here to hear this word awen waanihiisut
ii > aayi ᒫᔨ ᒦᐌᐤ Click here to hear this word miiweu ᐊᐌᓐ ᒫᔨᐌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen maayiwet
uu > we ᐆᒎᐅᐤ Click here to hear this word uucheuu ᒉᒀᓐ ᐌᒉᐆᒡ Click here to hear this word chekwaan wecheuuch
  ᐆᔅᑴᐙᑕᒻ Click here to hear this word uuskwewaatam ᐊᐌᓐ ᐌᔅᑴᐙᑕᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen weskwewaatahk
uu > uu ᑰᒌᐤ Click here to hear this word kuuchiiu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑰᒌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kuuchiit
  ᑲᐅ ᑴᐅ [ᑲᐅᒌᐤ] Click here to hear this word kauchiiu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑴᐅᒌᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kweuchiit
  ᑰᓅ Click here to hear this word kuunuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑰᓅᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kuunuut
  ᒨᒋᑲᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word muuchikahtaau ᐊᐌᓐ ᒨᒋᑲᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awen muuchikahtaat
  ᓅᑯᓲ Click here to hear this word nuukusuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓅᑯᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awen nuukusit
  ᓲᐳᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word suupuhtaau ᐊᐌᓐ ᓲᐳᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awen suupuhtaat
  ᔔᔔᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word shuushuuham ᐊᐌᓐ ᔔᔔᐦᐊᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen shuushuuhahk
  ᔫᐦᐄᒉᐤ Click here to hear this word yuuhiicheu ᐊᐌᓐ ᔫᐦᐄᒉᑦ Click here to hear this word awen yuuhiichet
  ᔫᐦᑌᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word yuuhtenam ᐊᐌᓐ ᔫᐦᑌᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen yuuhtenahk
aa > iyaa ᐃᔮ ᐋᐦᑯᓲ Click here to hear this word aahkusuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐦᑯᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awen iyaahkusit
  ᐋᐌᓄᐌᐤ Click here to hear this word aawenuweu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐌᓄᐙᑦ Click here to hear this word awen iyaawenuwaat
  ᐋᐱᔅᑎᒋᔗᐤ Click here to hear this word aapistichishweu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐱᔅᑎᒋᔓᐙᑦ Click here to hear this word awen iyaapistichishuwaat
  ᑎᔮ ᑖᐦᒋᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word taahchinam ᐊᐌᓐ ᑎᔮᐦᒋᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen tiyaahchinahk
  ᑭᔮ ᑳᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word kaataau ᐊᐌᓐ ᑭᔮᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kiyaataat
  ᒋᔮ ᒑᐦᑳᔅᑴᔫ Click here to hear this word chaahkaaskweyuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᒋᔮᐦᑳᔅᑴᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awen chiyaahkaaskweyit
  ᒥᔮ ᒫᑑ Click here to hear this word maatuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᒥᔮᑐᑦ Click here to hear this word awen miyaatut
  ᓂᔮ ᓈᓯᐯᐤ Click here to hear this word naasipeu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓂᔮᓯᐯᑦ Click here to hear this word awen niyaasipet
  ᓯᔮ ᓵᐲᐤ Click here to hear this word saapiiu ᐊᐌᓐ ᓯᔮᐲᑦ Click here to hear this word awen siyaapiit
  ᔑᔮ ᔖᐳᐸᔫ Click here to hear this word shaapupayuu ᒉᒀᓐ ᔑᔮᐳᐸᔨᒡ Click here to hear this word chekwaan shiyaapupayich
ᐊᐌᓐ ᔑᔮᐳᐸᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awen shiyaapupayit
  ᐃᔮ ᔮᔨᓀᐤ Click here to hear this word yaayineu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᔨᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awen iyaayinaat
waa > wiyaa ᐎᔮ ᐙᐱᓲ Click here to hear this word waapisuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᐎᔮᐱᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awen wiyaapisit
waa > uyaa ᑯᔻ ᒀᔥᑯᐦᑑ Click here to hear this word kwaashkuhtuu ᐊᐌᓐ ᑯᔻᔥᑯᑎᑦ Click here to hear this word awen kuywaashkutit
waa > iywaa ᔑᔻ ᔣᔣᑲᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word shwaashwaakaham ᐊᐌᓐ ᔑᔻᔣᑲᐦᐊᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen shiywaashwaakahahk
  ᑎᔻ ᑣᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word twaashin ᐊᐌᓐ ᑎᔻᔑᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen tiywaashihk
  ᐃᔻ ᔻᓇᒻ Click here to hear this word ywaanam ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔻᓇᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awen iywaanahk

Conjunct Verb Order

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