Junker, M.-O., Blacksmith, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Southern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original and 2013 revised edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]
Marie-Odile Junker, Louise Blacksmith and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Southern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original and 2013 revised edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://” [Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015
Cree verb classes
She writes him (his name) down.
She is writing it.
She (her name) is written down.
It is written.
Where English uses the same verb to write, Cree makes a difference depending on two factors: transitivity and gender.
Based on the number of roles that a verb has and the gender (animate, inanimate) of these roles, four main classes of verbs can be established.
One Role (Intransitive)
Animate Intransitive (VAI)
Inanimate Intransitive (VII)
Two Roles (Transitive)
Transitive Animate (VTA)
Transitive Inanimate (VTI)
Most verbs will have specific forms for each of these classes: VII, VTI, VTA or VAI, identified by different endings and different stems (see the pages on Verb Stems and Verb Inflection).
The following Cree definitions are suggested for these four classes:
VII (Inanimate Intransitive)
ᐁ ᐃᔅᐸᔨᐦᒡ/ᐁ ᐃᔑᓈᑯᐦᒡ ᒉᐧᑳᓐ᙮
e ispayihch/e ishinaakuhch chekwaan.
VAI (Animate Intransitive)
ᐁ ᐃᐦᑎᑦ ᐊᐧᐁᓐ᙮
e ihtit awen.
VTI (Transitive Inanimate)
ᐁ ᐃᐦᑑᑕᐦᒃ ᒉᐧᑳᔫ᙮
e ihtuutahk chekwaayuu.
VTA (Transitive Animate)
ᐁ ᐃᐦᑑᑕᐧᐋᑦ ᐊᐧᐁᔫᐦ᙮
e ihtuutawaat aweyuuh
All verbs in the Cree dictionary are classified according to those classes, plus an additional one called VAI+O: Verb Animate Intransitive plus Object.