Initial Change

Observation
ᓃᐴ Click here to hear this word niipuu S/he is standing
ᐊᐙᓐ ᓈᐳᐎᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan naapuwit Who is standing?

Initial change is a phonological change that affects the first syllable of a verb or a preverb. For example, when the verb ᓃᐴ niipuu above, is put in the Conjunct (#11) and is used for a question, the conjunct form ᓃᐳᐧᐃᑦ niipuwit becomes ᓈᐳᐧᐃᑦ naapuwit. The vowel of the first syllable of the stem changes from ii to aa. Initial change only happens if there is no preverb before the verb stem. If a conjunct preverb such as ᐋᐦ aa(h), chaa or ᑳᐦ kaa(h) is used, there will be no initial change.

Initial change never happens on verbs in the Imperative or the Independent order, only in the Conjunct order. Conjugations like Conjunct Indicative Neutral (#11) use it for (partial) questions in the present. Initial change is obligatory in two conjugations, the Conjunct Habitual (#12b) and the Conjunct Dubitative Neutral (#14).

Depending on the vowel of the stem, different changes happen. These are summarized in the table below Initial Change Rules for Verbs.

Initial Change Rules for Verbs

short vowels

Rule –> Dictionary form Changed form (#11, question)
i > aa ᐃᔅᒀᓯᒻ Click here to hear this word iskwaasim ᐊᐙᓐ ᐋᔅᒀᓯᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan aaskwaasihk
ᑭᓂᐙᐱᐤ Click here to hear this word kiniwaapiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᑳᓂᐙᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kaaniwaapit
ᑭᐎᐱᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word kiwipiyiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᑳᐎᐱᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kaawipiyit
ᐱᐱᑳᐱᔅᑳᐤ Click here to hear this word pipikaapiskaau ᑖᓐ ᐹᐱᑳᐱᔅᑳᒡ Click here to hear this word taan paapikaapiskaach
ᑎᐦᑯᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word tihkunim ᐊᐙᓐ ᑖᐦᑯᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan taahkunihk
ᑎᐹᐹᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word tipaapaatim ᐊᐙᓐ ᑖᐹᐹᑎᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan taapaapaatihk
ᒋᑭᐙᔑᔑᓐᐦ Click here to hear this word chikiwaashishinh ᐊᐙᓂᒌ ᒑᑭᐙᔑᔑᒡ Click here to hear this word awaanichii chaakiwaashishich
ᒋᐱᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word chipiham ᐊᐙᓐ ᒑᐹᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan chaapaahk
ᒥᒋᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word michinim ᐊᐙᓐ ᒫᒋᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan maachinihk
ᒥᔅᑭᒻ Click here to hear this word miskim ᐊᐙᓐ ᒫᔅᑭᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan maaskihk
ᒥᑖᐹᔮᐤ Click here to hear this word mitaapaayaau ᑖᓂᑎᐦ ᒫᑖᐹᔮᒡ Click here to hear this word taanitih maataapaayaach
ᓯᔅᑭᑎᐱᐤ Click here to hear this word siskitipiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓵᔅᑭᑎᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan saaskitipit
ᓯᒋᐤ Click here to hear this word sichiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓵᒋᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan saachit
ᓯᒋᓂᔅᒑᓈᐤ Click here to hear this word sichinischaanaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᓵᒋᓂᔅᒑᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan saachinischaanaat
ᓂᑭᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word nikitim ᐊᐙᓐ ᓈᑭᑎᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan naakitihk
ᓂᔅᑰ Click here to hear this word niskuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓈᔅᑯᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan naaskut
ᔑᐙᔨᒫᐤ Click here to hear this word shiwaayimaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᔖᐙᔨᒫᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan shaawaayimaat
ᔑᔓᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word shishunim ᐊᐙᓐ ᔖᔓᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan shaashunihk
ᐃᔨ ᐊᔮ ᐃᔨᐦᒋᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word iyihchihtaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐃᔮᒋᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan iyaachihtaat
ᐎᓂᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word winishin ᐊᐙᓐ ᐙᓂᔑᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan waanishihk
ᐎᑎᐳᔮᐤ Click here to hear this word witipuyaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐙᑎᐳᔮᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan waatipuyaat
ᐎᔨ ᐙᔨ ᐎᔨᐐᐤ Click here to hear this word wiyiwiiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᐙᔨᐐᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan waayiwiit
ᐎᔮ ᐙᔮ ᐎᔮᔅᑯᓂᒑᐤ Click here to hear this word wiyaaskunichaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐙᔮᔅᑯᓂᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan waayaaskunichaat
u > waa ᐅᑎᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word utinim ᐊᐙᓐ ᐙᑎᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan waatinihk
ᐅᒑᐆ Click here to hear this word uchaauu ᒑᒀᓐ ᐙᒑᐧᐃᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan waachaawich
ᐅᐙᔑᐹᔨᐦᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word uwaashipaayihtim ᐊᐙᓐ ᐙᐙᔑᐹᔨᐦᑎᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan waawaashipaayihtihk
ᐳᔅᑎᓯᔅᒑᐤ Click here to hear this word pustisischaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᑆᔅᑎᓯᔅᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan pwaastisischaat
ᑯᑎᐙᐤ Click here to hear this word kutiwaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᒀᑎᐙᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kwaatiwaat
ᑯᐃᑯᓈᐤ Click here to hear this word kuikunaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᒀᐃᑯᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kwaaikunaat
ᓂᐎᒌᐤ Click here to hear this word nuwichiiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓈᐎᒌᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan naawichiit
ᒧᔥᑖᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word mushtaanim ᐊᐙᓐ ᒸᔥᑖᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan mwaashtaanihk
u > waa ᓱᐦᒋᐱᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word suhchipiyiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᔂᐦᒋᐱᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan swaahchipiyit
u > uu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓲᐦᒋᐱᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan suuhchipiyit
yu > yu ᔪᐎᒑᐱᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word yuwichaapiyiu ᑖᓐ ᔪᐎᒑᐱᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word taan yuwichaapiyit
a > aa ᐊᑯᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word akutaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐋᑯᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan aakutaat
ᐊᐅᐦᐄᐙᐤ Click here to hear this word auhiiwaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐋᐅᐦᐄᐙᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan aauhiiwaat

long vowels

Rule –> Dictionary form Changed form
ii > iyaa ᐃᔮ ᐄᐹᑎᓐ Click here to hear this word iipaatin ᐃᔮᐹᑎᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word iyaapaatihch
ᐄᔨᐹᑯᐦᑎᓐ Click here to hear this word iiyipaakuhtin ᐃᔮᔨᐹᑯᐦᑎᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word iyaayipaakuhtihch
ᐃᔮ ᐄᐹᑖᔨᐦᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word iipaataayihtim ᐃᔮᐹᑖᔨᐦᑎᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word iyaapaataayihtihk
(ᐋᐹᑖᔨᐦᑎᐦᒃ) Click here to hear this word (aapaataayihtihk)
ii > aa ᐄᐹᑖᔨᐦᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word iipaataayihtim ᐋᐹᑖᔨᐦᑎᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word aapaataayihtihk
(ᐃᔮᐹᑖᔨᐦᑎᐦᒃ) Click here to hear this word (iyaapaataayihtihk)
ᐄ(ᔨ) ᐋ(ᔨ) ᐄᔨᑯᔅᑯᓐ Click here to hear this word iiyikuskun ᐋᔨᑯᔅᑯᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word aayikuskuhch
ᐄᔨᔨᐅᓂᐦᑳᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word iiyiyiunihkaataau ᐋᔨᔨᐅᓂᐦᑳᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word aayiyiunihkaataat
ᒌᔥᐴ Click here to hear this word chiishpuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᒑᔥᐳᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan chaashput
ᒦᒋᓲ Click here to hear this word miichisuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᒫᒋᓱᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan maachisut
ᓃᐴ Click here to hear this word niipuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓈᐳᐎᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan naapuwit
ᔒᑭᐦᐆ Click here to hear this word shiikihuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᔖᑭᐦᐅᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan shaakihut
ᔒᑭᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word shiikiham ᐊᐙᓐ ᔖᑳᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan shaakaahk
ᓰᑐᓈᐤ Click here to hear this word siitunaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᓵᑐᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan saatunaat
aa > iyaa ᐃᔮ ᐋᐦᑯᓯᐤ Click here to hear this word aahkusiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᐃᔮᐦᑯᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan iyaahkusit
ᐋᔅᒑᐤ Click here to hear this word aaschaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐃᔮᔅᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan iyaaschaat
ᑭᔮ ᑳᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word kaataau ᐊᐙᓐ ᑭᔮᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kiyaataat
ᑎᔮ ᑖᐦᑎᐱᐤ Click here to hear this word taahtipiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᑎᔮᐦᑎᐱᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan tiyaahtipit
ᑖᐦᒋᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word taahchinim ᐊᐙᓐ ᑎᔮᐦᒋᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan tiyaahchinihk
ᒋᔮ ᒑᔥᑎᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word chaashtinim ᐊᐙᓐ ᒋᔮᔥᑎᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan chiyaashtinihk
ᒑᐦᑳᔅᒀᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word chaahkaaskwaayiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᒋᔮᐦᑳᔅᒀᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan chiyaahkaaskwaayit
ᒥᔮ ᒫᑎᐙᐤ Click here to hear this word maatiwaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᒥᔮᑎᐙᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan miyaatiwaat
ᒫᑑ Click here to hear this word maatuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᒥᔮᑐᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan miyaatut
ᓂᔮ ᓈᓯᐹᐤ Click here to hear this word naasipaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᓂᔮᓯᐹᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan niyaasipaat
ᓈᒨ Click here to hear this word naamuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓂᔮᒧᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan niyaamut
ᓯᔮ ᓵᒋᓯᐤ Click here to hear this word saachisiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓯᔮᒋᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan siyaachisit
ᓵᐲᐤ Click here to hear this word saapiiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓯᔮᐲᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan siyaapiit
ᔑᔮ ᔖᐱᐳᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word shaapipuyiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᔑᔮᐱᐳᔨᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan shiyaapipuyit
ᐃᔮ ᔮᔨᓈᐤ Click here to hear this word yaayinaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐃᔮᔨᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan iyaayinaat
ᔮᐦᔮᐤ Click here to hear this word yaahyaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᐃᔮᐦᔮᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan iyaahyaat
ᐎᔮ ᐙᐱᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word waapinim ᐊᐙᓐ ᐎᔮᐱᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan wiyaapinihk
ᐙᐱᓯᐤ Click here to hear this word waapisiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᐎᔮᐱᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan wiyaapisit
kwaa> kwaa ᒀᑎᐲᐤ Click here to hear this word kwaatipiiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᒀᑎᐲᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kwaatipiit
kwaa>kuyaa ᑯᔮ ᐊᐙᓐ ᑯᔮᑎᐲᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kuyaatipiit
kwaa>kuyaa ᑯᔮ ᒀᔥᑯᐦᑎᐤ Click here to hear this word kwaashkuhtiu ᑯᔮᐱᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kuyaapichaat
kwaa>kuywaa ᑯᔻ ᒀᐱᒑᐤ Click here to hear this word kwaapichaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᑯᔻᔥᑯᐦᑎᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kuywaashkuhtit
twaa> tiywaa ᑎᔻ ᑣᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word twaashin ᐊᐙᓐ ᑎᔻᔑᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan tiywaashihk
ᑣᐱᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word twaapiyiu ᑎᔻᐱᔨᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan tiywaapiyich
mwaa> muyaa ᒧᔮ ᒸᔥᑎᔑᓐ Click here to hear this word mwaashtishin ᐊᐙᓐ ᒧᔮᔥᑎᔑᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan muyaashtishihk


ᒸᔅᒑᐤ Click here to hear this word mwaaschaau ᒧᔮᔅᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan muyaaschaat
mwaa> miywaa ᒥᔻ ᒥᔻᔅᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan miywaaschaat
pwaa> puyaa ᐳᔮ ᑆᒋᔅᑑ Click here to hear this word pwaachistuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᐳᔮᒋᔅᑐᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan puyaachistut
pwaa>piywaa ᐱᔻ ᐊᐙᓐ ᐱᔻᒋᔅᑐᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan piywaachistut
ᐱᔮ ᑆᒋᒋᑭᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word pwaachichikihtaau ᐱᔻᒋᒋᑭᐦᑖᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan piywaachichikihtaach
ywaa> iywaa ᐃᔻ ᔻᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word ywaanim ᐊᐙᓐ ᐃᔻᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan iywaanihk
ᔻᓈᐤ Click here to hear this word ywaanaau ᐃᔻᓈᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan iywaanaat
shwaa > shiywaa ᔑᔻ ᔣᔥᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word shwaashtaau ᔑᔻᔥᑖᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan shiywaashtaach
uu > uu ᑰᒌᐤ Click here to hear this word kuuchiiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᑰᒌᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kuuchiit
uu > waa ᐊᐙᓐ ᒀᒌᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kwaachiit
ᑰᓂᐆ Click here to hear this word kuuniuu ᐊᐙᓐ ᑰᓂᐎᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kuuniwit
ᐊᐙᓐ ᒀᓂᐎᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan kwaaniwit
ᐴᐴᔑᐤ Click here to hear this word puupuushiu ᐴᐴᔑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan puupuushit
ᑆᐴᔑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan pwaapuushit
ᑑᒥᓂᒻ Click here to hear this word tuuminim ᑑᒥᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan tuuminihk
ᑣᒥᓂᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan twaaminihk
ᓅᑯᓯᐤ Click here to hear this word nuukusiu ᐊᐙᓐ ᓅᑯᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan nuukusit
ᐊᐙᓐ ᓍᑯᓯᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan nwaakusit
ᓅᑯᓐ Click here to hear this word nuukun ᓅᑯᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan nuukuhch
ᓍᑯᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan nwaakuhch
ᒨᒋᑭᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word muuchikihtaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᒨᒋᑭᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan muuchikihtaat
ᐊᐙᓐ ᒸᒋᑭᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan mwaachikihtaat
ᒨᒋᑭᓐ Click here to hear this word muuchikin ᒨᒋᑭᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan muuchikihch
ᒸᒋᑭᐦᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan mwaachikihch
ᔫᔅᑳᐤ Click here to hear this word yuuskaau ᒑᒀᓐ ᔻᔅᑳᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan ywaaskaach
ᒑᒀᓐ ᔫᔅᑳᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan yuuskaach
ᓲᐱᐱᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word suupipiyiu ᓲᐱᐱᔨᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan suupipiyich
ᔂᐱᐱᔨᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan swaapipiyich
ᔔᔑᐎᐦᐊᒻ Click here to hear this word shuushiwiham ᐊᐙᓐ ᔔᔑᐙᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan shuushiwaahk
ᐊᐙᓐ ᔣᔑᐎᐦᐊᐦᒃ Click here to hear this word awaan shwaashiwihahk
ᔔᔑᐙᐤ Click here to hear this word shuushiwaau ᔔᔑᐙᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan shuushiwaach
ᔣᔑᐙᒡ Click here to hear this word chaakwaan shwaashiwaach
ᓲᐳᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word suupuhtaau ᐊᐙᓐ ᓲᐱᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan suupihtaat
ᐧᓵ ᐧᓵᐱᐦᑖᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan swaapihtaat
ᑑᒥᑎᐦᒑᐤ Click here to hear this word tuumitihchaau ᑑᒥᑎᐦᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan tuumitihchaat
ᐧᑖ ᐧᑖᒥᑎᐦᒑᑦ Click here to hear this word awaan twaamitihchaat

Conjunct Verb Order

Click here to go back to Cree Verb Inflection Cree Verb Inflection Click here to go to the top Top