Spelling Manual (Southern) – Syllablic Finals

ᔦᐦᔦᐧᐋᑲᓐ The use of the (h) final

at the end of a word

At the end of a word (h) is used to mark grammatical categories such as inanimate plural of nouns or verbs, obviative of animate nouns, locative of nouns, imperative marker of verbs, etc.

Inanimate plural marker

Nouns:

Singular Plural
ᐅᑖᐹᓐ ᐅᑖᐹᓐ
ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐄᑲᓐ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐄᑲᓐ
ᒥᐦᑦ ᒥᐦᑦ
ᐅᐧᐊᑦ ᐅᐧᐊᑦ
ᑎᐹᒋᒧᐧᐃᓐ ᑎᐹᒋᒧᐧᐃᓐ
ᐅᔮᑲᓐ ᐅᔮᑲᓐ
ᐅᓯᑦ ᐅᓯᑦ

Verbs:

Singular Plural
ᒥᔖᐤ ᒥᔖᐤ
ᐹᐸᔫ ᐹᐸᔫ
ᒥᐦᐧᑳᐤ ᒥᐦᐧᑳᐤ
ᐯᐦᑖᑯᓐ ᐯᐦᑖᑯᓐ
ᓅᑯᓐ ᓅᑯᓐ
ᒋᐧᓈᔅᑯᓐ ᒋᐧᓈᔅᑯᓐ
ᒪᒋᓐ ᒪᒋᓐ
ᐧᐋᔥᑌᐤ ᐧᐋᔥᑌᐤ
ᐧᐋᐹᐤ ᐧᐋᐹᐤ
Animate obviative marker

Possessed animate nouns

(h) is used for when the possessor is third person (he, she, they) (h) is not used when the possessor is first or second person (I, you, we)
ᐅᐦᑖᐧᐄ ᐅᐦᑖᐧᐄᔫ ᐅᐦᑖᐅᐧᐋᐤ ᓅᐦᑖᐧᐄ ᓅᐦᑖᐧᐄᓈᓐ
ᐅᑳᐧᐄ ᐅᑳᐧᐄᔫ ᐅᑳᐅᐧᐋᐤ ᓂᑳᐧᐄ ᓂᑳᐧᐄᓈᓐ
ᐅᑯᔅ ᐅᑯᓯᔫ ᐅᑯᓯᐧᐋᐤ ᓂᑯᔅ ᓂᑯᓯᓈᓐ
ᐅᑌᒻ ᐅᑌᒥᔫ ᐅᑌᒥᐧᐋᐤ ᓂᑌᒻ ᒋᑌᒥᓅ / ᓂᑌᒥᓈᓐ
ᐅᔥᑲᔒ ᐅᔥᑲᔒᔫ ᐅᔥᑲᔒᐧᐋᐤ ᓂᔥᑲᔒᒡ
ᐅᒫᒫᒻ ᐅᒫᒫᒥᔫ ᐅᒫᒫᒥᐧᐋᐤ ᓂᒫᒫᒪᒡ ᓂᒫᒫᒥᓈᓇᒡ

Obviative Nouns with Transitive Animate Verbs

When a Transitive Animate Verb has two third persons, one of them adds an (h) at the end.

  • ᐋᓃ ᒫᑎᐧᔐᐤ ᓂᔥᑲᔒ
  • ᐋᓃ ᐧᐋᐸᒣᐤ ᓂᔅᑌᔅ
  • ᐋᓃ ᐧᐋᐸᒣᐤ ᐅᔅᑌᔅ
  • ᐋᓃ ᐊᔑᒣᐤ ᐊᓂᔫᐦ ᐊᑎᒻ
  • ᐋᓃ ᐊᔑᒣᐤ ᓂᑌᒻ
(h) on expressions of time

(h) is found on expressions of time.

  • ᐯᔭᒄ ᐲᓯᒻᐦ ᐄᑎᓇᐦᐆ ᒫᓐᐦ᙮
  • ᒣᔑᑯᒻ ᒌᔑᑳᐤᐦ ᒥᔅᐳᓐ᙮
  • ᐁᔑᑯᒻ ᒌᔑᑳᐤᐦ ᒥᔅᐳᓐ᙮
(h) on habitual verbs

(h) is found on conjugation #12b to indicate a habitual or repetitive event: ‘whenever…’

Conjunct Indicative Neutral (CIN) (#11) CIN Habitual-Iterative (#12b)
ᐁ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ ᒫᒋᓱᔮᓐ
ᑳ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ ᑳ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ
ᒉ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ ᒉ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ
ᒋᔦᒋᔐᐹᔮᒡ ᒋᔦᒋᔐᐹᔮᒡ
(h) as a marker of Imperative verbs for second person singular forms.
3rd person ‘s/he…’ 2nd person singular ‘(you)…’
ᓂᐹᐤ ᓂᐹ
ᐊᔨᒥᐦᑖᐤ ᐊᔨᒥᐦᑖ
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑫᐤ ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑫ
ᐊᐴ ᐊᑉ
ᐱᓯᐧᑳᐴ ᐱᓯᐧᑳᑉ
ᓂᑲᒨ ᓂᑲᒻ
ᓃᒨ ᓃᒻ
ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑕᒻ ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑦ
ᑕᐦᒋᔥᑲᒻ ᑕᐦᒋᔥᒃ

Note that (h) is used for the command forms ‘do it to it’ and ‘do it to me’ but not for ‘do it to him’.

(do it to) it (do it to) me (do it to) him
ᓈᑌᐤ ᓈᑕ ᓈᔥ ᓈᔥ
ᐅᒋᐱᑌᐤ ᐅᒋᐱᑕ ᐅᒋᐱᔥ ᐅᒋᐱᔥ
ᐧᐋᐸᒣᐤ ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑕ ᐧᐋᐸᒻ ᐧᐋᐸᒻ
ᒥᔅᑯᐧᐁᐤ ᒥᔅᑲ ᒥᔅᑰ ᒥᔅᑰ
ᒪᓂᐧᔐᐤ ᒪᓂᔕ ᒪᓂᔓ ᒪᓂᔔ

See also: Spelling Manual – Northern Dialect – at the end of a word