Spelling Manual (Northern) – Syllabic Finals

The use of the (h) ᔮᐦᔮᐙᑭᓐ

at the end of a word

At the end of a word (h) is used to mark grammatical categories such as the inanimate plural of nouns, obviative of animate nouns, locative of nouns, imperative marker of verbs, etc.

Inanimate plural marker

Nouns:

Singular Plural
ᐅᑖᐹᓐ ᐅᑖᐹᓐ
ᒥᓯᓂᐦᐄᑭᓐ ᒥᓯᓂᐦᐄᑭᓐ
ᒥᐦᑦ ᒥᐦᑦ
ᐆᑦ ᐆᑦ
ᑎᐹᒋᒧᐎᓐ ᑎᐹᒋᒧᐎᓐ
ᐎᔮᑭᓐ ᐎᔮᑭᓐ
ᐅᓯᑦ ᐅᓯᑦ

Verbs:

Singular Plural
ᒥᔖᐤ ᒥᔖᐤ
ᐹᐱᔨᐤ ᐹᐱᔨᐤ
ᒥᐦᒀᐤ ᒥᐦᒀᐤ
ᐹᐦᑖᑯᓐ ᐹᐦᑖᑯᓐ
ᓅᑯᓐ ᓅᑯᓐ
ᒋᓍᔅᑯᓐ ᒋᓍᔅᑯᓐ
ᒥᒋᓐ ᒥᒋᓐ
ᐙᔥᑖᐤ ᐙᔥᑖᐤ
ᐙᐹᐤ ᐙᐹᐤ
Animate obviative marker

Possessed animate nouns

(h) is used for when the possessor is third person (he, she, they) (h) is not used when the possessor is first or second person (I, you, we)
ᐅᐦᑖᐐ ᐅᐦᑖᐐᔨᐤ ᐅᐦᑖᐅᐙᐤ ᓅᐦᑖᐐ ᓅᐦᑖᐐᓈᓐ
ᐅᑳᐐ ᐅᑳᐐᔨᐤ ᐅᑳᐅᐙᐤ ᓂᑳᐐ ᓂᑳᐐᓈᓐ
ᐅᑯᓯᔅ ᐅᑯᓯᓯᔨᐤ ᐅᑯᓯᓯᐙᐤ ᓂᑯᓯᔅ ᓂᑯᓯᓯᓈᓐ
ᐅᑖᒻ ᐅᑖᒥᔨᐤ ᐅᑖᒥᐙᐤ ᓂᑖᒻ ᓂᑖᒥᓈᓐ

Obviative Nouns with Transitive Animate Verbs

When a Transitive Animate Verb has two third persons, one of them (is obviative) and adds an (h) at the end.

ᐊᔑᒫᐤ ᓂᑖᒻ ᐋᓃ᙮
ashimâu nitâmh ânî.

ᓂᑖᒻ ᐊᔑᒫᐃᑯ ᐋᓃ
nitâm ashimiku ânî-h.

ᐋᓃ ᐧᐋᐸᒥᑰ ᓂᔅᑖᔅ
ânî wâpamikû nistâs-h.

ᐋᓃ ᐙᐱᒫᐤ ᓂᔅᑖᔅ
ânî wâpimâu nistâs-h.

(h) on expressions of time

(h) can be added to an expression of time, when something happens more than once.

  • ᔖᔥ ᐹᔨᑯᐲᓯᒻ ᐄᑎᓂᐦᐆ᙮
  • ᐹᔨᑯᐲᓯᒻ ᐄᑎᓂᐦᐆ ᒫᓐ᙮
  • ᓃᔓᑎᐱᔅᑳᐤ ᓂᒥ ᓅᐦᒋ ᒥᔪᐦᐧᑳᒧᓐ᙮
(h) on habitual verbs

(h) is found on conjugation #12b to indicate a habitual or repetitive event: ‘whenever…’

Conjunct Indicative Neutral (CIN) (#11) CIN Habitual-Iterative (#12b)
ᐋᐦ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ ᒫᒋᓱᔮᓐ
ᑳ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ ᑳ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ
ᒑ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ ᒑ ᒦᒋᓱᔮᓐ
ᒋᔮᒋᔖᐹᔮᒡ ᒋᔮᒋᔖᐹᔮᒡ
(h) as a marker of Imperative verbs for second person singular forms
3rd person ‘s/he…’ 2nd person singular ‘(you)…’
ᓂᐹᐤ ᓂᐹ
ᐊᔨᒥᐦᑖᐤ ᐊᔨᒥᐦᑖ
ᒥᓂᐦᒀᐤ ᒥᓂᐦᒀ
ᐱᓯᒀᐱᐤ ᐱᓯᒀᑉ
ᓂᑭᒨ ᓂᑭᒻ
ᓃᒥᐤ ᓃᒻ
ᐙᐱᐦᑎᒻ ᐙᐱᐦᑦ
ᑎᐦᒋᔥᑭᒻ ᑎᐦᒋᔥᒃ

Note that (h) is used for the command forms ‘do it to it’ and ‘do it to me’ but not for ‘do it to him’.

(do it to) it (do it to) me (do it to) him
ᓈᑖᐤ ᓈᑦ ᓈᔥ ᓈᔥ
ᐅᒋᐱᑖᐤ ᐅᒋᐱᑦ ᐅᒋᐱᔥ ᐅᒋᐱᔥ
ᐙᐱᒫᐤ ᐙᐱᐦᑦ ᐙᐱᒻ ᐙᐱᒻ
ᒥᔅᑭᐙᐤ ᒥᔅᒃ ᒥᔅᑭᐤ ᒥᔅᑭᐤ
ᒥᓂᔣᐤ ᒥᓂᔥ ᒥᓂᔓ ᒥᓂᔓ
See also: Spelling Manual – Southern Dialect – at the end of a word