Spelling Manual (Northern) – Syllabic Finals

How the syllabic finals change when an ending is added

Words ending with ᑉ, ᑦ, ᒃ, ᒡ, ᒻ, ᓐ, ᔅ, ᔥ

Animate plural suffix

When you add this ending change to ᐱ, ᑎ, ᑭ, ᒥ, ᓂ, ᓯ, ᔑ then add

Singular Plural
p ᔒᔒ ᔒᔒ
t ᐄᔨᔮᔑᐦ ᐄᔨᔮᔑᐦ
k ᐅᒑ ᐅᒑ
m ᐊᓵ ᐊᓵ
n ᐋᒥᐦᒀ ᐋᒥᐦᒀ
s ᓂᒫ ᓂᒫ
sh ᐊᐙᔑ ᐊᐙᔑ
Locative suffix

When you add the locative ending, used for the English prepositions “in, at, to, on, etc.” change the small ᑉ, ᑦ, ᒃ, ᒄ, ᒡ, ᒻ, ᓐ, ᔅ, ᔥ, to big ᐱ, ᑎ, ᑭ, ᑯ, ᒋ, ᒥ, ᓂ, ᓯ, ᔑ.

Locative
ᑆᑭ ᑆᑭᑎᐦᒡ
ᐊᓵ ᐊᓵᒥᐦᒡ
ᐋᒥᐦᒀ ᐋᒥᐦᒀᓂᐦᒡ
ᓃᐲ ᓃᐲᔑᐦᒡ
ᒦᒋᓲᓈᐦᑎ ᒦᒋᓲᓈᐦᑎᑯᐦᒡ
ᑖᐦᑎᐱᐧᐃ ᑖᐦᑎᐱᐧᐃᓂᐦᒡ

Note that another ending which sounds exactly like the locative can be added to nouns. This is the simulative suffix and is translated as “like a” as in this sentence: ᐧᒫᐦᒡ ᓈᐹᐦᒡ ᐄᑖᔨᐦᑖᑯᓯᔨᐤᐦ ᐅᑳᐧᐄᐦ.

Simulative
ᓈᐹᐤ ᐹᐦᒡ
ᐊᑎ ᐊᑎᒧᐦᒡ
ᔒᔒ ᔒᔒᐱᐦᒡ
ᓂᔅ ᓂᔅᑭᐦᒡ
ᐊᑎᐦ ᐊᑎᐦᑯᐦᒡ
ᓂᒫ ᓂᒫᓯᐦᒡ
Diminutive suffix

When you add the diminutive ending, meaning “small or young”, you usually change the small syllabic ᑉ, ᑦ, ᒃ, ᒄ, ᒡ, ᓐ to big ᐱ, ᑎ, ᑭ, ᑯ, ᒋ, ᒥ, ᓂ.

Diminutive
ᐊᑯᐦ ᐊᑯᐦ
ᒋᐙᔥ ᒋᐙᔥᔑᔥ
ᐊᑎᐦ ᔑᔥ
ᐋᒥᐦᒀ ᐋᒥᐦᒀ

In many words there is often an additional change so that becomes ᒑ, ᑎ and become ᒋ, ᑏ becomes ᒌ, ᓵ becomes , and becomes . In these cases there may be two pronunciations of the diminutive word, as seen in the examples below.

Diminutive
ᒥᐦ ᒥᐦ
ᒥᑖ ᒥᑖᔑ ᔑᔥ
ᓰᐅᑏ ᓰᐅᑏᔑ ᔑᔥ ᔑᔥ
ᐊᑎᒻ ᒧᔑᔥ
ᐊᓵ ᔖᒥ
ᐎᔮ ᐎᔮᔑ
ᐱᔨᒌ ᐱᔨᒌᔑ
ᒥᔥᑎᒄ ᒥᔥᑯᔑᔥ

An exception is the change of final to in this word:

ᓂᔅ ᓂᔥᔑᔥ
ᓂᔥᐦᑳᓂᔑᔥ
Possessive suffix

When the possessive endings are added, little ᑉ, ᑦ, ᒃ, ᒄ, ᒡ, ᒻ, ᓐ, ᔅ, ᔥ become big ᐱ, ᑎ, ᑭ, ᑯ, ᒋ, ᒥ, ᓂ, ᓯ, ᔑ.

Possessive
ᔒᔒ ᓂᔒᔒᐱᒻ
ᒥᐦ ᓂᒥᐦ
ᓂᑰ
ᐊᑎᐦ ᓂᑎᑎᐦ
ᐊᓵ ᓂᑎᓵᓈᓂᒡ
ᐋᒥᐦᒀ ᓂᑖᒥᐦᒀᓈᓂᒡ
ᓂᒫ ᓂᓂᒫ
ᐊᒋᑳ ᓂᑎᒋᑳ

Here is a summary of how the finals change:

Animate Plural Diminutive Locative Possessive
ᔒᔒ ᔒᔒ ᔒᔒᐱᔑ ᔒᔒᐦᒡ ᓂᔒᔒ
ᐅᒑ ᐅᒑ ᐅᒑ ᐅᒑᐦᒡ ᓅᒑ
ᐹᓂᑮ ᐹᓂᑮ ᐹᓂᑮ ᐹᓂᑮᐦᒡ ᓂᐹᓂᑮ
ᐊᓵ ᐊᓵ ᐊᔖ ᐊᓵᐦᒡ ᓂᑎᓵᓈᓂᒡ
ᐴᑎ ᐴᑎ ᐴᑎᔥ, ᐴᒋᓂ ᐴᑎᐦᒡ ᓂᐴᑎ
ᓂᒫ ᓂᒫ ᓂᒫ ᓂᒫᐦᒡ ᓂᓂᒫ
ᐊᒋᑳ ᐊᒋᑳ ᐊᒋᑳ ᐊᒋᑳᐦᒡ ᓂᑎᒋᑳ

Words ending with

The little changes to big when an ending is added.

Animate Plural Diminutive Locative Possessive
ᐊᑎᐦ ᐊᑎᐦ ᐊᒋᐦᔑᔥ ᐊᑎᐦᐦᒡ ᓂᑎᑎᐦ
ᐊᒥᔅ ᐊᒥᔅ ᐊᒥᔥᔑᔥ ᐊᒥᔅᐦᒡ ᓂᑎᒥᔅ
ᐙᐱᔅ ᐙᐱᔅ ᐙᐱᔥᔑᔥ ᐙᐱᔅᐦᒡ ᓂᐙᐱᔅ
ᔑᔥ ᐦᒡ ᓂᒸ

Words ending with

If the word ends in , and an ending is added, the is kept only if the suffix is .

ᔑᑯᑖ ᔑᑯᑖᐤᐦ
ᐤᐦ

When the animate plural ending is added to a noun, the becomes .

Singular Plural
ᓈᐹ ᓈᐹ
ᒫᓂᑖ ᒫᓂᑖ
ᐅᒋᒫ ᐅᒋᒫ
ᐃᔅᐧᑳ ᐃᔅᐧᑳ

When the animate plural ending is added to a verb, the becomes .

Singular Plural
ᓂᐹ ᓂᐹ
ᒫᑎᐙ ᒫᑎᐙ
ᐙᐱᒫ ᐙᐱᒫ
ᐧᐃᔨᐐ ᐧᐃᔨᐐ
ᑯᑎᐲ ᑯᑎᐲ

When the diminutive, locative or possessive ending is added to a noun, the is dropped.

Singular Diminutive Locative/Simulative Possessive
ᓈᐹ ᓈᐹᔑ ᓈᐹᐦᒡ ᓂᓈᐹ
ᒫᓂᑖ ᒫᓂᒑᔑ ᒫᓂᑖᐦᒡ ᓂᒫᓂᑖ
ᐅᒋᒫ ᐅᒋᒫᔑ ᐅᒋᒫᐦᒡ ᓅᒋᒫ

Some exceptions

Be careful of the following words where becomes ᒧ, ᔅ becomes , and becomes when an ending is added.

Singular Plural Locative Diminutive
ᐊᑎ ᐊᑎ ᐊᑎᐦᒡ ᐊᒋᔑᔥ
ᐲᓯ ᒧᒡ ᒧᐦᒡ ᐲᔑ
ᐦᒡ ᔑᔥ
ᐙᐳ ᐙᐳ ᐙᐳᐦᒡ ᐙᐳᔑᔥ

More examples of words with these endings

ᐊᑎᒻ ᐲᓯᒻ ᒨᔅ ᐙᐳᔥ
ᐊᑎᒧᐦᑳᓐ ᐲᓯᒧᐦᑳᓐ ᒨᓱᔮᓐ ᐙᐳᔓᔮᓐ
ᐊᑎᒧᑖᐹᓈᔮᐲ ᐲᓯᒨᓯᓂᐦᐄᑭᓐ ᒨᓱᒥᓐ ᐙᐳᔓᐦᑳᓐ
ᐊᑎᒧᐲᐐᐦ ᐲᓯᒸᔮᐲ ᒨᓱᔮᔅ ᐙᐳᔓᒦᒋᒻ
ᐊᑎᒧᐦᑭᒌ ᐲᓯᒸᐦᑖᐦᒡ ᒨᓱᒡ ᐙᐳᔓᒫᐤ
ᐊᑎᒧᔥᑎᒀᓐ ᑎᐱᐦᐄᐲᓯᒸᓐ ᒨᔓᔑᔥ ᐙᐳᔓᔥᑎᐧᑳᓐ
ᐊᑎᒧᔮᓐ ᐲᓯᒧᒡ ᓂᒨᓱᒻ ᐙᐳᔓᔅᒋᐦᒄ
ᐊᑎᒧᑖᐹᓈᔅᒄ ᐲᔑᒧᔥ ᒨᓱᐦᒡ ᐙᐳᔓᐳᒋᓂᔑᒡ

See also: Spelling Manual – Southern Dialect – How the small syllabic symbols change when an ending is added