Spelling Manual (Northern) – Boundaries

Adding a personal prefix

Personal Prefix on Nouns

The personal prefixes are ᓂ, ᒋ, ᐅ and are added to possessed nouns. The personal prefixes ᓂ, ᒋ are added to Independent verb stems. They are written joined to the word or the first preverb.

ᔒᔒᑉ
ᓃᔨ ᔒᔒᐱᒻ
ᒌᔨ ᔒᔒᐱᒻ
ᐧᐄᔨ ᔒᔒᐱᒻᐦ
ᓃᔮᓐ ᔒᔒᐱᒥᓈᓐ
ᒌᔮᓂᐤ ᔒᔒᐱᒥᓂᐤ
ᐧᐄᔨᐧᐋᐤ ᔒᔒᐱᒥᐙᐤ
ᔒᔒᐱᒥᐙᐤᐦ

If the word begins with or , then add ᓂᑎ, ᒋᑎ, or ᐅᑎ.

ᐊᐙᔑᔥ
ᓃᔨ ᓂᑎᐙᔑᔒᒻ
ᒌᔨ ᒋᑎᐙᔑᔒᒻ
ᐧᐄᔨ ᐅᑎᐙᔑᔒᒻᐦ
ᐃᔅᒀᐤ
ᓃᔨ ᓂᑎᔅᒀᒻ
ᒌᔨ ᒋᑎᔅᒀᒻ
ᐧᐄᔨ ᐅᑎᔅᒀᒻᐦ

If the noun begins with , then use for the first person (ᓃᔨ my, ᓃᔮᓐ our but not your) and for the second person (ᒌᔮᓂᐤ our (you and I), ᒌᔨ, ᒌᔨᐧᐋᐤ your); for the third person (ᐧᐄᔨ her/his, ᐧᐄᔨᐧᐋᐤ their) use a second ᐅ:

ᐅᑖᐹᓐ
my ᑖᐹᓐ our ᑖᐹᓂᓈᓐ
our ᑖᐹᓂᓂᐤ
your ᑖᐹᓐ your ᑖᐹᓂᐧᐋᐤ
her/his ᐅᐅᑖᐹᓐ their ᐅᐅᑖᐹᓂᐧᐋᐤ

Note that some people would like to write twice for ᑖᐹᓐ: ᐅᐅᑖᐹᓐ but this creates problems with the current technology where all double vowels are automatically converted to long vowels in typing tools and syllabic convertors.

Note that it is very common for children to use instead of in words (this is a language change that makes it more regular):

Write the traditional form… Not…
ᐦᑖᐐ ᒎᐦᑖᐐ
ᑖᐹᓐ ᒎᑖᐹᓐ
ᓯᓯᒻ ᒎᓯᓯᒻ

For some nouns these prefixes are already part of the word. These words are mostly names of relatives and body parts and are called dependent nouns (marked nad or nid in the dictionary)

ᑯᓯᔅ ᔅᑳᑦ
ᑯᓯᔅ ᔅᑳᑦ
ᑯᓯᔅᐦ ᔅᑳᑦ

A few dependent nouns are not the names of relatives or body parts.

ᐊᑎᒻ ᒥᑖᔅ ᒦᐎᑦ
ᑖᒻ ᑖᔅ ᐎᑦ
ᑖᒻ ᑖᔅ ᐎᑦ
ᑖᒻᐦ ᑖᔅ ᐎᑦ

The word ᐊᐳᐃ has different pronunciations:

Full form (possessive prefix + t + apui) Contracted form
ᓂᑎᐳᐃ ᐳᐃ
ᒋᑎᐳᐃ ᐳᐃ
ᐅᑎᐳᐃᐦ ᐳᐃᐦ
Personal Prefix on Verbs

The personal prefixes ᓂ, ᒋ are added to Independent verb stems. They are joined to the word or the first preverb. Note that there is no personal prefix added before the third person (he, she, her/his X) forms.

ᒥᔅᑭᒻ
ᓃᔨ ᒥᔅᑳᓐ
ᒌᔨ ᒥᔅᑳᓐ
ᐧᐄᔨ ᔅᑭᒻ
ᓃᔮᓐ ᒥᔅᑳᓈᓐ
ᒌᔮᓂᐤ ᒥᔅᑳᓈᓂᐤ
ᒌᔨᐧᐋᐤ ᒥᔅᑳᓈᐙᐤ
ᐧᐄᔨᐧᐋᐤ ᔒᔒᐱᒥᐙᐤᐦ

If the verb begins with or , then add ᓂᑎ, ᒋᑎ, or ᐅᑎ.

ᐊᐱᐤ ᐃᔅᒀᓲ
ᓃᔨ ᓂᑎᐱᓐ ᓂᑎᔅᒀᓱᓐ
ᒌᔨ ᒋᑎᐱᓐ ᒋᑎᔅᒀᓱᓐ
ᐧᐄᔨ ᐊᐱᐤ ᐃᔅᒀᓲ

If the verb begins with , then use for the first person (ᓃᔨ I, ᓃᔮᓐ we (but not you) and for the second person (ᒌᔨ you singular, ᒌᔮᓂᐤ we (you and I), ᒌᔨᐧᐋᐤ ‘you [plural]’); for the third person no personal prefix is used on verbs.

ᐅᐦᒌᐤ ᐅᑎᓂᒻ
ᓃᔨ ᓅᐦᒌᓐ ᑎᓈᓐ
ᒌᔨ ᑰᐦᒌᓐ ᑎᓈᓐ
ᓃᔮᓐ ᓅᐦᒌᓈᓐ ᑎᓈᓈᓐ
ᒌᔮᓂᐤ ᑰᐦᒌᓈᓂᐤ ᑎᓈᓂᐤ
ᒌᔨᐧᐋᐤ ᑰᐦᒌᓈᐧᐋᐤ ᑎᓈᓈᐧᐋᐤ
ᐐᔨ ᐅᐦᒌᐤ ᐅᑎᓂᒻ
ᐐᔨᐙᐤ ᐅᐦᒌᐧᐃᒡ ᐅᑎᓂᒧᒡ

Note that it is very common for children to use instead of in words, due to regular language change :

Write… Not…
ᐦᑖᐐ ᒎᐦᑖᐐ
ᑖᐹᓐ ᒎᑖᐹᓐ
ᓯᓯᒻ ᒎᓯᓯᒻ

See also: Spelling Manual – Southern Dialect – Adding a personal prefix