Additional VTA verb classes

Double goals

Observation
ᐋᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word waapahtiyeu. S/he shows him/her something.
ᒫᑎᔑᒧᐧᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word maatishimuweu. S/he cuts it for him.

Some transitive verbs that involve giving to another or doing something for another actually have three roles: an actor and two goals. Such verbs are called double goals. In the verb ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ᙮ waapahtiyeu. there is the canoe, John, and Louise. The focus is on John the animate recipient or beneficiary of the action.

ᐧᒑᓐᐦ ᐧᐋᐸᐦᑎᔦᐤ ᓘᐄᔅ ᐅᑑᑦ᙮ Click here to hear this word John waapahtiyeu Louise utuut. Louise shows her canoe to John.

The other goal of the verb can be animate or inanimate.

ᒋᐧᐋᐸᐦᑎᔨᑎᓐ ᓂᑑᑦ᙮ Click here to hear this word chiwaapahtiyitin nituut. I show you my canoe.
ᒋᐧᐋᐸᐦᑎᔨᑎᓐ ᓂᑕᐧᐋᔒᒻ᙮ Click here to hear this word chiwaapahtiyitin nitawaashiim. I show you my child.

Other examples:

ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐄᑲᓂᔫ ᒦᔦᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word masinahiikaniyuu miiyeu. s/he gives him/her a book.
ᐁᓪᓰ ᒌᐧᐁᒦᔦᐤ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐄᓂᔫ ᓗᓰᐦ᙮ Click here to hear this word Elsie chiiwe miiyeu masinihiikaniyuu Lucih. Elsie is returning the book to Luci.

Verbs like ᒫᑎᔑᒧᐧᐁᐤ maatishimuweu are TA verbs derived by insertion of a -uw suffix after a TI verb ( ᒫᑎᔑᒻ maatishim ‘she cuts it’). They focus on the person who benefits from what happens (the beneficiary), and they can take animate or inanimate goals, in addition to this beneficiary goal. Such verbs are sometimes called benefactive or applicative verbs.

Examples:

ᑲᓇᐧᐁᔨᐦᑕᒧᐁᐤ ᐅᑕᐧᐋᔒᒥᔫᐦ᙮ Click here to hear this word kanaweyihtamuweu utawaashiimiyuuh. S/he is looking after his children for him.
ᑲᓇᐧᐁᔨᐦᑕᒨᐦ ᓂᑑᑦ᙮ Click here to hear this word kanaweyihtamuuh nituut. Look after my canoe for me!
ᒋᑲ ᑲᓇᐧᐁᔨᐦᑕᒧᐁᐤ ᑫᓃᐦ ᐅᑖᐹᓈᔅᒄᐦ᙮ Click here to hear this word chika kanaweyihtamuweu Kennyh utaapaanaaskuyuuh. You will look after Kenny’s sled for him.
ᒋᑲ ᑲᓇᐧᐁᔨᐦᑕᒧᐁᐤ ᐧᒑᓐ ᐅᑑᑕᔫ᙮ Click here to hear this word chika kanaweyihtamuweu John utuutiyuu. You will look after John’s canoe for him.

These verbs have a different form in the inverse:

Direct ᓂᒌ ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐋᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word Nichii itishahamuwaau. I sent it to him.
ᒋᒌ ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐃᓐ᙮ Click here to hear this word chichii itiashahamuwin. You sent it to me.
Inverse ᓂᒌ ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᒄ᙮ Click here to hear this word nichii itishahamaakw. He sent it to me.
ᒋᒌ ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᑎᓐ᙮ Click here to hear this word chichii itishahamaatin. I sent it to you.

The applicative verbs should not be confused with the relational forms of VTI and VAI verbs.

Causatives

Observation
ᓃᒥᐦᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word niimiheu. S/he causes him to dance.

Many verbs ending in ᐦᐁᐤ -heu have a causative meaning. They indicate that someone is making someone else do something. Causative verbs are TA verbs. They can be derived from TI or AI verbs.

ᑲᔅᒉᔨᐦᑕᒻ᙮ Click here to hear this word kascheyihtam. VTI S/he is frustrated about it.
ᑲᔅᒉᔨᐦᑕᒥᐦᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word kascheyihtamiheu. VTA-causative S/he causes him to be frustrated.
ᓃᒨ᙮ Click here to hear this word niimuu. VAI S/he dances.
ᓃᒥᐦᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word niimiheu. VTA-causative S/he causes him to dance.
ᐹᐦᐴ᙮ Click here to hear this word paahpuu. VAI S/he laughs.
ᐹᐦᐱᐦᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word paahpiheu. VTA-causative S/he causes him to laugh.
ᒣᑕᐧᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word metaweu. VAI S/he is playing.
ᒣᑕᐧᐁᐦᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word metaweheu. VTA-causative S/he makes him play.

Not all causative verbs are derived:

ᒨᐦᐁᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word muuheu. VTA-causative S/he makes him/her cry.
ᒫᑑ᙮ Click here to hear this word maatuu. VAI S/he cries.

see also Word Formation

Inverse

Observation
ᑲᔥᑲᒥᑰ᙮ Click here to hear this word kashkamikuu. It is tight and digs into him.

Some VTA verbs almost always appear in the inverse with an inanimate subject. Some, like ᑲᔥᑲᒥᑰ kashkamikuu above or ᐋᓯᐦᒉᔨᐦᑕᒥᐦᐄᑰ aasihcheyihtamihiikuu below are never found in the direct.

ᐲᐦᒋᑐᓀᔥᑳᑰ᙮ Click here to hear this word piihchituneshkaakuu. It flies into her mouth.
ᑲᔥᑲᒥᑰ᙮ Click here to hear this word kashkamikuu. It is tight on him.
ᒫᐦᑎᑯᓂᑰ᙮ Click here to hear this word maahtikunikuu. It (illness) impedes him, her.
ᐋᓯᐦᒉᔨᐦᑕᒥᐦᐄᑰ᙮ Click here to hear this word aasihcheyihtamihiikuu. It interests or motivates her.
ᑯᑖᐧᐄᔥᑖᑰ᙮ Click here to hear this word kutaawiishtaakuu. The porcupine quill goes deep into her skin.
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