VAI with implicit goals
|ᒋᒥᔑᑳᒉᐤ᙮||chimishikaacheu.||‘She cuts (something) off with an instrument’|
|ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᒉᐤ᙮||itishahamaacheu.||‘She sends it (to someone).’|
The AI verbs in the above examples have implicit goals. For ᒋᒥᔑᑳᒉᐤ chimishikaacheu, the implicit meaning is that something is being cut. For ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᒉᐤ itishahamaacheu, the implicit meaning is that the sending is to someone. They mean that something or someone is affected by what someone is doing, but this thing or person is already expressed by the verb. These verbs usually end in -cheu, or -hiiweu. Such verbs are just labeled VAI in the dictionary.
|ᒦᓂᐧᐋᒋᐦᐄᐧᐁᐤ᙮||miiniwaachihiiweu.||‘She heals (someone).’|
|ᒋᔅᑎᒥᐦᐄᐧᐁᐤ᙮||chistimihiiweu.||‘She causes misery (to someone).’|
The VAI implicit goals cannot be expressed again by an overt noun. One CANNOT say: *ᒋᒥᔑᑳᒉᐤ ᐧᐃᔮᓯᔫ *chimishikaacheu wiyaasiyuu to mean: ‘she cuts the meat’, nor *ᐊᐧᐁᔫᐦ ᐃᑎᔑᐦᐊᒫᒉᐤ *aweyuuh itishihamaacheu to mean: ‘she sends it to someone.’ To say such things, one has to use regular VTI verbs like: ᒋᒥᔕᒻ ᐧᐃᔮᓯᔫ chimisham wiyaasiyuu ‘she cuts the meat’ or benefactive verbs like: ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒧᐧᐁᐤ ᐊᐧᐁᔫᐦ itishahamuweu aweyuuh ‘she is sending it to someone.’
Other nouns can sometimes be added to these verbs (often an instrument), but not nouns for their implicit goal.
|ᒨᐦᑯᒫᓂᔫ ᒋᒥᔑᑳᒉᐤ᙮||muuhkumaaniyuu chimishikaacheu.||‘She cuts (something) off with a knife‘.|
|ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐄᑲᓂᔫ ᐃᑎᔕᐦᐊᒫᒉᐤ᙮||masinahiikaniyuu itishahamaacheu.||‘She sends the letter (to someone).’|
Many VAI verbs have a part in them that already clearly expresses the goal. For example the verb
ᐋᔓᑲᓂᐦᒉᐤ aashukanihcheu. ‘S/he makes a bridge.’ from the word ᐋᔓᑲᓐ aashukan ‘bridge’. One can say the above or use a noun and a VTI2 verb: ᐋᔓᑲᓂᔫ ᐅᔑᐦᑖᐤ aashukaniyuu ushihtaau. ‘S/he makes a bridge.’
|ᐧᐋᐧᐋᐸᐦᒋᑫᐤ᙮||waawaapahchikeu.||‘S/he is flipping through a book with pictures.’|
|ᒫᐦᐄᔅᑯᑯᐦᑕᑖᐤ᙮||maahiiskukuhtataau.||‘S/he puts the canoe in the water with the bow pointing down the river.’|