VAI with explicit goals

Some verbs that look like VAI verbs in their word structure can nevertheless take a second role (an object or a goal). Some can be used as intransitive verbs, or as transitive verbs.

VAI with explicit goals that can be animate or inanimate

Observation
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑫᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word minihkweu. ‘S/he is drinking.’
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑫᐤ ᑏᔫ᙮ Click here to hear this word minihkweu tiiyuu. ‘S/he is drinking tea.’
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑫᐤ ᒎᒎᔑᓈᐳᐃᐦ᙮ Click here to hear this word minihkweu chuuchuushinaapuih. ‘S/he is drinking milk.’

There are some VAI with explicit goals whose goals can be either animate or inanimate, and only be third persons.

Examples:

ᐱᒥᐸᐦᐧᑖᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word pimipahtwaau. ‘She runs carrying it.’
ᐱᒥᐸᐦᐧᑖᐤ ᒥᔥᑎᑯᔫ᙮ Click here to hear this word pimipahtwaau mishtikuyuu. ‘She runs carrying the stick.’
ᐱᒥᐸᐦᐧᑖᐤ ᐅᑕᐧᐋᔒᒻᐦ᙮ Click here to hear this word pimipahtwaau utawaashiimh. ‘She runs carrying her baby.’

Such verbs conjugate like regular VAI.

VAI with explicit goals that can be only inanimate

Observation
ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ᙮ Click here to hear this word nipiiuhtaau. ‘S/he wets it.’
ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻ᙮ Click here to hear this word nipiiuhtaau ukaanichiim. ‘She wets her (own) sweater.’

Some VAI like ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ nipiiuhtaau in the example above, can take an inanimate noun as a goal or object (the inanimate noun ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻ ukaanichiim). Such VAI verbs with explicit inanimate goals are sometimes called by linguists “pseudo-transitive verbs” or VTI 2. If they make their passive or unspecified actor forms like VTI verbs, in -kanuu, we call them VAI+O. Other verbs, still make their unspecified actor form in -nuu, like regular VAI but nevertheless can take an inanimate goal, like ᒦᒎ miichuu below.

ᒦᒎ᙮ Click here to hear this word miichuu. ‘She eats it.’
ᒦᒎ ᐧᐃᔮᓯᔫ᙮ Click here to hear this word miichuu wiyaasiyuu. ‘She eats meat (inanimate).’

They have corresponding VTA forms if an animate goal is used. For example:

ᒧᐧᐁᐤ ᐋᐃᐦᑯᓈᐤᐦ᙮ Click here to hear this word muweu aaihkunaauh. She eats bannock (animate)’
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