Additional VTA verb classes

Double goals

Observation
ᐧᐋᐱᐦᑎᔮᐤ Click here to hear this word waapihtiyaau S/he shows him/her something
ᒫᑎᔑᒧᐧᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word maatishimuwaau S/he cuts it for him

Some transitive verbs that involve giving to another or doing something for another actually have three roles: an actor and two goals. Such verbs are called double goals. In the verb ᐧᐋᐱᐦᑎᔮᐤ waapihtiyaau there are three participants: the canoe, John, and Louise. The focus is on John the animate recipient or beneficiary of the action:

ᐧᒑᓐᐦ ᐧᐋᐱᐦᑎᔮᐤ ᓘᐃᔅ ᐅᑑᑦ Click here to hear this word Johnh waapihtiyaau Louise utuut Louise shows her canoe to John

The other goal of the verb can be inanimate (like the canoe) or animate, (like the child):

ᒋᐧᐋᐱᐦᑎᔨᑎᓐ ᓂᑑᑦ Click here to hear this word chiwaapihtiyitin nituut I am showing you my canoe
ᒋᐧᐋᐱᐦᑎᔨᑎᓐ ᓂᑎᐧᐋᔑᔒᒻ Click here to hear this word chiwaapihtiyitin nitiwaashishiim I am showing you my child
ᒥᓯᓂᐦᐄᑭᓂᔨᐤ ᒥᔮᐤ Click here to hear this word misinihiikiniyiu miyaau S/he give him/her a book
ᐁᓪᓰ ᒌᐧᐋᒥᔮᐤ ᒥᓯᓂᐦᐄᑭᓂᔨᐤ ᓘᓰᐦ Click here to hear this word Elsie chii waamiyaau misinihiikiniyiu Lucih Elsie is returning the book to Luci

Verbs like ᒫᑎᔑᒧᐧᐋᐤ maatishimuwaau are TA verbs derived by insertion of a -uw suffix after a TI verb (ᒫᑎᔑᒻ maatishim ‘she cuts it’). They focus on the person who benefits from what happens (the beneficiary), and they can take animate or inanimate goals, in addition to this beneficiary goal. Such verbs are sometimes called benefactive or applicative verbs. Some other examples are:

ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒧᐋᐤ ᐅᑎᐧᐋᔑᔒᒥᔨᐤᐦ Click here to hear this word kiniwaayihtimuwaau utiwaashishiimiyiuh S/he is looking after his children for him
ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒨᐦ ᓂᑑᑦ Click here to hear this word kiniwaayihtimuuh nituut Look after my canoe for me!
ᒋᑭ ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒧᐋᐤ ᑫᓃᐦ ᐅᑖᐹᓈᔅᒄᐦ Click here to hear this word chiki kiniwaayihtimuwaau Kennyh utaapaanaaskwh You will look after Kenny’s sled for him
ᒋᑭ ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒧᐋᐤ ᐧᒑᓐ ᐅᑑᑦ Click here to hear this word chiki kiniwaayihtimuwaau John utuut You will look after John’s canoe for him

These verbs have a different form in the inverse uwin > aatin / uwaau > aakiu.

ᒋᑭ ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒫᑎᓐ ᑰᑖᐹᓈᔅᒄ Click here to hear this word chiki kiniwaayihtimaatin kuutaapaanaaskw I will be looking after your sled for you
ᒋᑭ ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒫᑭᐤ ᐅᑑᑦ Click here to hear this word chiki kiniwaayihtimaakiu utuut He (obviative) will be looking after her canoe for her
ᒋᑭ ᑭᓂᐧᐋᔨᐦᑎᒫᒄ ᑫᓃ ᑰᑖᐹᔅᒄᐦ Click here to hear this word chiki kiniwaayihtimaakw kenii kuutaapaanaaskwh Kenny will look after your sled for you

The applicative verbs should not be confused with the relational forms of VTI and VAI verbs.

Causatives

Observation
ᓃᒥᐦᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word niimihaau S/he causes him to dance

Many TA verbs ending in ᐦᐋᐤ -haau have a causative meaning. They indicate that someone is making someone else do something. They can be derived from TI or AI verbs.

ᑭᔅᒑᔨᐦᑎᒻ Click here to hear this word kischaayihtim VTI S/he is frustrated about it
ᑭᔅᒑᔨᐦᑎᒥᐦᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word kischaayihtimihaau VTA-causative S/he causes him to be annoyed
ᓃᒥᐤ Click here to hear this word niimiu VAI S/he dances
ᓃᒥᐦᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word niimihaau VTA-causative S/he causes him to dance
ᐹᐦᐱᐤ Click here to hear this word paahpiu VAI S/he laughs
ᐹᐦᐱᐦᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word paahpihaau VTA-causative S/he causes him to laugh
ᒫᑎᐧᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word maatiwaau VAI S/he is playing
ᒫᑎᐧᐋᐦᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word maatiwaahaau VTA-causative S/he makes him play

Not all causative verbs are derived:

ᒨᐦᐋᐤ Click here to hear this word muuhaau VTA-causative S/he makes him/her cry
ᒫᑑ Click here to hear this word maatuu VAI S/he cries

Inverse

Observation
ᑭᔥᑭᒥᑰ Click here to hear this word kishkimikuu It is tight and digs into him

Some VTA verbs almost always appear in the inverse with an inanimate subject. Some, like ᑭᔥᑭᒥᑰ kishkimikuu above or ᐋᓯᐦᒑᔨᐦᑎᒥᐦᐄᑰ aasihchaayihtimihiikuu below are never found in the direct.

ᐋᓯᐦᒑᔨᐦᑎᒥᐦᐄᑰ Click here to hear this word aasihchaayihtimihiikuu It interests or motivates her
ᑯᑖᐧᐄᔥᑖᑰ Click here to hear this word kutaawiishtaakuu The porcupine quill goes deep into her skin
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