Junker, M.-O., Salt, L., & MacKenzie, M. (2015). East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. Retrieved from [URL]
Marie-Odile Junker, Luci Salt and Marguerite MacKenzie. East Cree Verbs (Northern Dialect). [Revised and expanded from 2006 original edition] In The Interactive East Cree Reference Grammar. 2015. Web. [date]
[URL] = website address, beginning with “http://” [Date] = the date you accessed the page, styled as follows: 13 Dec. 2015
VAI with implicit goals
She uses something for cutting (something)
She sends (to someone)
The AI verbs in the above examples have implicit goals. For ᒋᒥᔑᑳᒑᐤchimishikaachaau, the implicit meaning is that something is being cut. For ᐃᑎᔑᐦᐊᒫᒑᐤitishihamaachaau, the implicit meaning is that the sending is to someone. They mean that something or someone, already expressed by the verb, is affected by what someone is doing. These verbs usually end in -chaau, -hiiwaau. Such verbs are just labeled VAI in the dictionnary.
she heals (people)
she causes misery (to someone)
The VAI implicit goals cannot be expressed again by an overt noun. One CANNOT say: *ᒋᒥᔑᑳᒑᐤ ᐧᐃᔮᓯᔫ *chimishikaachaau wiyaasiyuu to mean: ‘she cuts the meat’, nor *ᐊᐧᐋᔨᐤᐦ ᐃᑎᔑᐦᐊᒫᒑᐤ *awaayiuh itishihamaachaau to mean: ‘she sends it to someone.’ To say such things, one has to use regular VTI verbs like: ᒋᒥᔑᒻ ᐎᔮᓯᔫ chimishim wiyaasiyuu ‘she cuts the meat’ or benefactive verbs like ᐃᑎᔑᐦᐊᒧᐧᐋᐤ ᐊᐧᐋᔨᐤᐦitishihamuwaau awaayiuh ‘she is sending it to someone.’
Other nouns can sometimes be used with these verbs (often as an instrument), but not as their implicit goal.
She cuts (something) off with a knife
She sends the letter (to someone)
Many such VAI verbs have a part in them that already clearly expresses the goal. So this goal does not need to be expressed again. For example the verb ᐋᔓᑭᓂᐦᒑᐤ aashukinihchaau ‘she makes a bridge’ , from the word ᐋᔓᑭᓐaashukin ‘bridge’. One can say the above or use a noun and a VAI+O verb ᐋᔓᑭᓂᔨᐤ ᐅᔑᐦᑖᐤaashukiniyiu ushihtaau ‘she makes a bridge’ .
S/he is looking at pictures in a book
S/he puts the canoe in the water pointing downriver