VAI with explicit goals

Some verbs that look like VAI verbs in their word structure can nevertheless take a second role (an object or a goal). They can be used as intransitive verbs, or as transitive verbs.

VAI with explicit goals that can be animate or inanimate

Observation
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑳᐤ Click here to hear this word minihkwaau S/he is drinking
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑳᐤ ᑏᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word minihkwaau tiiyiu S/he is drinking tea
ᒥᓂᐦᐧᑳᐤ ᑑᑑᔑᓈᐳᐃᐦ Click here to hear this word minihkwaau tuutuushinaapuih S/he is drinking milk

There are some VAI with explicit goals whose goals can be either inanimate or animate third persons.

Examples:
ᐱᒥᐱᐦᐧᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word pimipihtwaau She runs carrying it
ᐱᒥᐱᐦᐧᑖᐤ ᒥᔥᑎᑯᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word pimipihtwaau mishtikuyiu She runs carrying the stick
ᐱᒥᐱᐦᐧᑖᐤ ᐅᑎᐧᐋᔑᔒᒻᐦ Click here to hear this word pimipihtwaau utiwaashishiimh She runs carrying her baby

VAI with explicit goals that can be only inanimate

Observation
ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ Click here to hear this word nipiiuhtaau S/he wets it
ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻ Click here to hear this word nipiiuhtaau ukaanichiim She wets her (own) sweater

Some VAI like ᓂᐲᐅᐦᑖᐤ nipiiuhtaau in the example above, can take an inanimate noun as goal (the inanimate noun ᐅᑳᓂᒌᒻ ukaanichiim). Such VAI verbs with explicit inanimate goals are sometimes called by linguists “pseudo-transitive verbs” or VTI 2. If they make their passive or unspecified actor forms like VTI verbs, in -kiniuu, we call them VAI+O. Other verbs, still make their unspecified actor form in -niuu, like regular VAI but nevertheless can take an inanimate goal, like ᒦᒋᐤ miichiu below.

ᒦᒋᐤ Click here to hear this word miichiu She eats it
ᒦᒋᐤ ᐧᐃᔮᓯᔨᐤ Click here to hear this word miichiu wiyaasiyiu She eats meat

They have corresponding VTA forms if an animate goal is used. For example:

ᒧᐧᐁᐤ ᐋᐃᐦᑯᓈᐤᐦ᙮ muweu aaihkunaauh. She eats bannock (animate)’